## Introduction to Advanced SQL

Are you ready to take your SQL skills to the next level? In this article, we will explore advanced SQL queries and provide examples to illustrate their usage.

But before we dive into the examples, we want to highlight the importance of interactive SQL courses to help you master these advanced concepts. LearnSQL.com offers such courses to help you improve your SQL skills and become proficient in using advanced SQL queries.

### Example #1 – Ranking Rows Based on a Specific Ordering Criteria

Let’s start with an example of how to use the RANK() function to rank rows according to a specific criterion. The RANK() function is a window function used in SQL to assign a rank to each row within a result set based on a specific ordering criterion.

It is particularly useful when dealing with large datasets. Suppose you have a dataset with the names of employees and their salaries.

You want to know which employee earns more than the others and rank the salaries in descending order. Here is an example query that uses the RANK() function to achieve that:

```
SELECT Name, Salary,
RANK() OVER (ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS 'Rank'
FROM Employees;
```

In this query, the RANK() function is used to assign a rank to each employee based on their salary.

The ORDER BY clause specifies that the results should be ordered in descending order of salary. Finally, we use the AS keyword to rename the column containing the rank to ‘Rank’.

Using the ORDER BY clause ensures that the result set is ordered based on the specified criterion. In this case, the result set is ordered by salary in descending order.

You can also use the ASC keyword to order the result set in ascending order, which is the default.

## Conclusion

In this article, we have discussed the importance of interactive SQL courses and provided an example of an advanced SQL query. The RANK() function is a powerful tool that can be used to rank rows based on a specific ordering criterion.

By using the ORDER BY clause, you can order the result set to display the data in the desired format. We hope that this article has given you a better understanding of advanced SQL queries and how they work.

### Example #2 – List the First 5 Rows of a Result Set

Have you ever needed to display only a portion of a large result set? In SQL, the WITH clause with a common table expression (CTE) and a WHERE clause can do just that.

Let’s take a look at an example query that filters and returns only the top 5 rows from a result set:

## WITH my_cte AS (

SELECT *

FROM MyTable

ORDER BY SomeColumn

)

SELECT *

## FROM my_cte

WHERE SomeColumn < 6;

In this example query, we use the WITH clause to create a CTE named ‘my_cte’. The SELECT statement retrieves all rows from MyTable and sorts them in ascending order based on the column ‘SomeColumn’.

Next, the WHERE clause filters the rows in ‘my_cte’ where ‘SomeColumn’ is less than 6. This filters the top 5 rows from the result set.

Using the WITH clause with a CTE can simplify queries and make them more readable. By creating a CTE, we can reference the results of the query multiple times without the need for temporary tables or subqueries.

### Example #3 – List the Last 5 Rows of a Result Set

Displaying the last few rows of a result set requires a small modification of the previous example query. By changing the order type, we can display the last five rows easily:

## WITH my_cte AS (

SELECT *

FROM MyTable

ORDER BY SomeColumn DESC

)

SELECT *

## FROM my_cte

WHERE SomeColumn < 6;

In this query, we change the order type to DESC to sort the rows in descending order instead. The WHERE clause remains the same as before to filter the last five rows.

We use the same approach as Example #2, creating a CTE using the WITH clause. This avoids the need to repeat the same subquery twice, which can help reduce clutter in the larger query and improve readability.

## Conclusion

In this article, we have seen how to filter and display only a portion of a large result set using the WITH clause with a CTE and a WHERE clause. By sorting the data either in ascending or descending order using the ORDER BY clause, we can narrow the result set down to specific rows and easily display the first or last five rows.

Using these techniques for filtering and querying data can greatly improve query performance by reducing the amount of data that needs to be retrieved and filtered. Moreover, it can lead to clearer, more efficient SQL code that is easier to read and maintain.

### Example #4 – List The Second Highest Row of a Result Set

What if you want to find the second highest row in a result set? This can be achieved by filtering the result set based on rank.

The RANK() function can be used to assign a rank to each row based on sorting criteria, and then the WHERE clause can be used to filter based on the second-highest rank.

Let’s take a look at an example query that filters and returns the second highest row in a result set:

SELECT *

## FROM (

SELECT *, RANK() OVER (ORDER BY SomeColumn DESC) AS Rank

FROM MyTable

) SubQ

WHERE Rank = 2;

In this example query, we use a subquery to first assign a rank to each row based on the value of ‘SomeColumn’ sorted in descending order using the RANK() window function. Next, we use the WHERE clause to filter the row where ‘Rank’ equals 2, which corresponds to the second-highest row in the result set.

It is essential to understand how the ranking functions work to ensure accurate results. The RANK() function assigns the same rank to continuous values; e.g., if two rows have the same value and get a rank of 2, the next row will get rank 4.

In contrast, the ROW_NUMBER() function assigns unique ranks to each row, resulting in gaps between numbers. The DENSE_RANK() function assigns dense ranks, which means that there are no gaps between rankings.

### Example #5 – List the Second Highest Salary By Department

What if you want to find the second-highest salary by department? This can be achieved by partitioning the data by department with the PARTITION BY clause and applying the RANK() function to each partition.

Here’s an example query that filters and returns the second-highest salary by department:

SELECT *

## FROM (

SELECT *, RANK() OVER (PARTITION BY dept_id ORDER BY Salary DESC) AS Rank

FROM Employees

) SubQ

WHERE Rank = 2;

In this query, we use the PARTITION BY clause to partition the data by department and then apply the RANK() function to each partition based on the salary. This will result in separate rankings for each department and allow us to filter the second-highest salary within each grouping using the WHERE clause.

The DENSE_RANK() function can also be used instead of RANK() if we want to allow rank ties between employees within the same department.

## Conclusion

In this article, we have seen how to filter and display specific rows from a result set using ranking functions and the WHERE clause. We also showed how to partition data by a certain field and apply ranking functions to each partition to find specific rows within that group.

Using these techniques, you can analyze data with greater clarity and efficiency. By using ranking functions, you can easily filter and display specific rows, especially when dealing with large datasets.

Furthermore, with the use of partitioning, you can analyze specific subsets of data within a larger dataset more accurately.

### Example #6 – List the First 50% Rows in a Result Set

In some cases, you may need to display only a subset of rows from a result set.

You may want to display the top 50% of rows, or even the bottom 25%. The NTILE() function is an effective tool for dividing a result set into subsets.

Let’s take a look at an example query that returns the first 50% rows in a result set:

SELECT *

## FROM (

SELECT *, NTILE(2) OVER (ORDER BY SomeColumn DESC) AS NTile

FROM MyTable

) SubQ

WHERE NTile = 1;

In this example query, we use the NTILE() function to divide the result set into two subsets. The ORDER BY clause sorts the rows in ‘MyTable’ in descending order by ‘SomeColumn’.

The NTILE(2) function then divides the result set into two subsets. Each row is assigned a value between 1 and 2, indicating which subset it belongs to.

Next, the WHERE clause filters the rows where NTILE equals 1, which corresponds to the top 50% of rows in the result set. The value inside the NTILE() function can be changed to create a different number of subsets.

For example, if you set NTILE(4), it divides the result set into four subsets.

### Example #7 – List the Last 25% Rows in a Result Set

If you want to display the last 25% rows in a result set, you can use the same approach as Example #6.

Instead of filtering the rows where NTILE equals 1, you select the rows where NTILE equals 4. Here’s an example query:

SELECT *

## FROM (

SELECT *, NTILE(4) OVER (ORDER BY SomeColumn DESC) AS NTile

FROM MyTable

) SubQ

WHERE NTile = 4;

In this example query, the NTILE() function creates four subsets by sorting and dividing the result set. The WHERE clause filters the rows where NTILE equals 4, which corresponds to the last 25% of rows in the result set.

It’s worth noting that the NTILE() function doesn’t guarantee that each subset contains the same number of rows. It evenly distributes rows across subsets, so some subsets may have more or fewer rows than others.

## Conclusion

In this article, we’ve seen how to divide a result set into subsets using the NTILE() function and filter the results based on the subset it belongs to. By changing the value in the NTILE() function, you can create a different number of subsets and choose the one that displays the necessary range of rows.

Furthermore, the approach we’ve shown can be adapted to different queries, and it underscores how SQL provides the flexibility to extract subsets of the data from larger data sets with minimal hassle.

### Example #8 – Number the Rows in a Result Set

In SQL, you may need to assign a unique number to each row in a result set.

The ROW_NUMBER() function can accomplish this task.

Let’s take a look at an example query that uses the ROW_NUMBER() function to number the rows in a result set:

```
SELECT ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY SomeColumn) AS RowNum, *
FROM MyTable;
```

In this example query, the ROW_NUMBER() function assigns a unique number to each row in the result set based on the column ‘SomeColumn’.

The ORDER BY clause sorts the rows in ascending order, which means that the row with the lowest value in ‘SomeColumn’ will have a row number of 1. By using the ROW_NUMBER() function, you can add additional information to a result set to aid with further data processing or analysis.

### Example #9 – Combine Two Tables with Every Possible Combination of Rows

In some scenarios, you may need to combine two tables to find all possible combinations of rows. The CROSS JOIN clause is an effective tool to achieve this.

CROSS JOIN combines every row of one table with every row of the other table, resulting in a full Cartesian product of the two tables. Let’s take a look at an example query that uses CROSS JOIN to find all possible combinations of rows and calculate prices based on available data.

SELECT ProductName, BoxWeight, PerPoundPrice, BoxWeight * PerPoundPrice AS BoxPrice

## FROM Products

CROSS JOIN PriceList;

In this example query, we combine all rows in the ‘Products’ table with every row in the ‘PriceList’ table using the CROSS JOIN clause. This results in every possible combination of products and prices.

To calculate the box price, we multiply the weight of each box with the per-pound price from the ‘PriceList’ table. The CROSS JOIN clause can be used to create complex queries that involve multiple tables and require all possible combinations of rows.

It can be helpful when you’re trying to analyze data from several sources and need to create a Cartesian product to do so.

## Conclusion

In this article, we’ve explored two additional advanced SQL concepts. We first showed how to use the ROW_NUMBER() function to assign a unique number to each row in a result set.

This is useful when needing to further analyze or process data.

Then, we showed how to use the CROSS JOIN clause to combine two tables and find all possible combinations of rows.

This is useful when attempting to analyze multiple data sources simultaneously. Furthermore, the example query demonstrated how to use the combined data to calculate prices based on available data.

These concepts, like the ones we explored earlier, can help you better understand the full power of SQL and enable you to conduct more complex data analysis with ease. By keeping these tools in mind when working with SQL, you can improve your queries’ overall accuracy and efficiency.

I apologize, but it seems that you left out the title or topic for Example #11. Without a topic, it is challenging to provide additional information or expand upon a specific concept related to SQL.

If you could provide me with more details or a specific topic related to Example #11, I would be happy to continue this article and provide additional information.

In this article, we have explored advanced SQL concepts and demonstrated how to use them to analyze and process data more efficiently.

We’ve discussed several techniques such as the RANK() function, the WITH clause, the NTILE() function, and the CROSS JOIN clause to filter data, calculate prices, and even find all possible combinations of rows. Additionally, we highlighted the importance of interactive SQL courses and understanding the behavior of ranking functions for accurate results.

By using these techniques, you can analyze data in a more meaningful way, improve query performance, and understand the full power of SQL to gain insightful and vital information into the data. With SQL being an essential tool for data analysis and manipulation, mastering these advanced concepts will pay off in the long run and elevate your SQL skills to a higher level.