Heteroscedasticity is a statistical phenomenon where the variance of errors in a regression model is not constant across all values of the independent variable(s). It is a common issue that can affect the reliability of the model’s predictions and the accuracy of its estimations.

Fortunately, there are tools that can help us identify and correct heteroscedasticity. One such tool is White’s Test.

In this article, we will take a closer look at how we can use White’s Test to test for heteroscedasticity in regression models and interpret its results.

## Loading Data

To illustrate the application of White’s Test, we will use the popular mtcars dataset. We can load this dataset into a pandas DataFrame using the following code:

```
import pandas as pd
df = pd.read_csv("https://raw.githubusercontent.com/selva86/datasets/master/mtcars.csv")
```

## Fitting Regression Model

Next, we must select the response variable (y) and predictor variables (X) for our regression model. For the purpose of this article, we will use mpg as our response variable and disp and hp as our predictor variables.

### We can fit our regression model using the following code:

```
import statsmodels.formula.api as smf
model = smf.ols(formula="mpg ~ disp + hp", data=df).fit()
```

## Performing White’s Test

Now that we have our fitted regression model, we can perform White’s Test using the het_white() function from the statsmodels library. This function computes the test statistic and p-value of White’s Test.

We can use the following code to perform White’s Test:

```
from statsmodels.stats.diagnostic import het_white
test_statistic, p_value, _, _ = het_white(model.resid, model.model.exog)
print("Test Statistic:", test_statistic)
print("P-value:", p_value)
```

## Interpretation of White’s Test Results

The results of White’s Test can be interpreted using the null and alternative hypothesis, as well as the p-value.

### Null and Alternative Hypothesis

The null hypothesis of White’s Test is that the variance of errors is constant across all values of the independent variable(s). The alternative hypothesis is that the variance of errors is not constant across all values of the independent variable(s).

### Interpreting P-value

P-value is a measure of the strength of evidence against the null hypothesis. It represents the probability of obtaining a test statistic as extreme or more extreme than the observed test statistic, assuming the null hypothesis is true.

Typically, a significance level of 0.05 is used to determine whether a p-value is statistically significant or not. If the p-value is less than 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is evidence of heteroscedasticity.

### Implications of White’s Test Result

If White’s Test rejects the null hypothesis, we can conclude that the regression model suffers from heteroscedasticity. This means that the variance of errors is not constant across all values of the independent variable(s), and the accuracy of the model’s predictions and estimations may be compromised.

In such cases, we need to take remedial measures to correct this issue.

## Conclusion

In this article, we discussed the importance of identifying and correcting heteroscedasticity in regression models. We looked at how we can use White’s Test to test for heteroscedasticity, and how to interpret its results.

We also discussed the implications of heteroscedasticity on the reliability of the model and the accuracy of its predictions and estimations. By using tools like White’s Test, we can ensure that our regression models are robust and reliable, and provide accurate insights into the relationships between variables.

Regression analysis is a powerful statistical technique that enables us to explain and predict the relationships between variables. However, regression models are built on a set of assumptions, and one of the most important assumptions is that the variance of errors is constant across all values of the independent variable(s).

When this assumption is not met, the model suffers from heteroscedasticity, which can affect the reliability of the model and the accuracy of its predictions and estimations. Thankfully, there are several ways to deal with heteroscedasticity, and in this article, we will explore two of them: transforming the response variable and weighted regression.

## Transforming Response Variable

One way to deal with heteroscedasticity is to transform the response variable. The idea behind this approach is to apply a mathematical function to the response variable in order to reduce the variance of errors and achieve a more constant variance across all values of the independent variable(s).

### Log Transformation

One common transformation is the log transformation. This involves taking the natural logarithm of the response variable and fitting the model using the transformed variable.

This transformation is useful when the variance of errors increases at an increasing rate as the response variable increases. For example, if we have a regression model that predicts the number of sales based on the advertising budget, and the variance of errors increases as the sales increase, we can use the log transformation to reduce the effect of the outliers in the high sales range and achieve a more constant variance across all sales values.

### Square Root Transformation

Another transformation is the square root transformation. This involves taking the square root of the response variable and fitting the model using the transformed variable.

This transformation is useful when the variance of errors increases at a decreasing rate as the response variable increases. For example, if we have a regression model that predicts the weight of a person based on their height, and the variance of errors increases at a decreasing rate as the height increases, we can use the square root transformation to achieve a more constant variance across all height values.

### Cube Root Transformation

The cube root transformation is similar to the square root transformation, but it involves taking the cube root of the response variable. This transformation is useful when the variance of errors increases at a constant rate as the response variable increases.

For example, if we have a regression model that predicts the temperature based on the time of day, and the variance of errors increases at a constant rate as the time of day increases, we can use the cube root transformation to achieve a more constant variance across all time values.

## Weighted Regression

Another way to deal with heteroscedasticity is to use weighted regression. Weighted regression is a technique that assigns weights to data points based on their variance, so that data points with high variance contribute less to the model compared to data points with low variance.

This approach allows us to account for the heteroscedasticity and achieve a more accurate estimation of the regression coefficients and standard errors. The weights in a weighted regression are usually proportional to the inverse of the variance of errors for each data point.

This means that data points with high variance of errors will have low weights, and data points with low variance of errors will have high weights. The simplest form of weighted regression is called the weighted least squares regression (WLS), which involves minimizing the sum of the squared residuals, weighted by their respective weights.

To perform a weighted regression, we must first estimate the variance of errors for each data point. This can be done using the residuals from the original regression model.

We can then compute the weights from the inverse of the variance of errors, and use these weights to fit the WLS model. The variance of errors can be estimated using the following formula:

```
residuals = y - y_hat
variance_of_errors = np.mean(residuals**2)
```

Where y is the response variable, y_hat is the predicted value of y from the original regression model, and np is the numpy library for Python.

## Conclusion

Heteroscedasticity is a common issue that can affect the accuracy and reliability of regression models. Fortunately, there are ways to deal with heteroscedasticity, such as transforming the response variable and using weighted regression.

By applying these techniques in the appropriate situations, we can ensure that our regression models are robust and reliable, and provide accurate insights into the relationships between variables. In this article, we discussed the issue of heteroscedasticity in regression models and two strategies for dealing with it.

We went over the transformation of the response variable through log, square root, and cube root transformations, as well as using weighted regression. Heteroscedasticity can affect a model’s reliability and accuracy in predictions, so its an essential topic to understand.

Through an appropriate application of the strategies discussed, we can ensure that our regression models provide reliable estimates and accurate insights in real-world scenarios.