Adventures in Machine Learning

Designing and Coding a Python Blackjack Game: A Step-by-Step Guide

Blackjack – a classic and popular card game enjoyed by millions of people around the world. It is found in almost every casino, providing players with a thrilling gambling experience.

In this article, we will explore the fascinating world of Blackjack, understand its rules and basic strategies, and discover how to design the game in Python.

Overview of Blackjack game

The objective of Blackjack is to get a total value of 21 or closer to it without going over. Players are dealt two face-up cards, while the dealer is given one face-up card.

The dealer’s second card is face down, known as the Hole card. The value of each card is determined as follows: an Ace is worth one or eleven, face cards are worth ten, and numeral cards are worth their face value.

Once the initial cards are dealt, players have several options to make – hit, stand, double down, split, or surrender. The primary goal is to beat the dealer’s hand without busting, which is having a total value over 21.

Rules of Blackjack

Blackjack follows a specific set of rules that players must follow to play the game successfully. Each player begins with two cards face-up, while the dealer receives one face-up and one face-down card.

The game revolves around the value of each card, where 2 to 10 cards hold their face value, face cards – Jack, Queen, and King are worth 10, and an Ace can be counted as either 1 or 11. To win the game, a player must maintain a total card value of 21 or closest to it without exceeding the said value.

If a player’s total card value exceeds 21, they ‘bust,’ and the dealer wins the round. When the dealer’s total value is 17 or above, they must stand.

Alternatively, if the dealer has a total value of less than 17, they must keep drawing until they reach the value of 17 or higher.

Designing Blackjack Game in Python

Python, an open-source programming language, can be used to create engaging games, including Blackjack. Here are some fundamental steps to design the game:

Function to print cards

To begin, we need to develop a function that prints out cards. In Python, a basic print statement will suffice.

For instance, print(Hearts, Ace) will display the card with the name ‘Ace of Hearts’.

Creating Card Class

We need to design a card class to define each card’s value and suit. The card class has two main attributes: a suit and a value.

The suit can be defined by Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, or Spades, while the value can be from 2 through 10, or Face cards (Jack, Queen, King), which hold a value of 10, and Ace that can hold a value of 1 or 11.

Fundamental values for Blackjack game

The basic values for a standard Blackjack game are the suits, cards, and values. The suits are Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, and Spades.

Cards range from 2 to 10, along with face cards (Jack, Queen, King) and Ace, collectively forming a standard deck of 52 cards.

Generating a deck of playing cards

We now need to create a deck of cards that we can work with. This can be done using loops or list comprehension.

It’s crucial to note that in Blackjack, the deck must be shuffled before each round, making it difficult to predict which cards will be dealt next.


In summary, designing a Blackjack game in Python requires us to create a card class, define fundamental values such as suits, cards, and values, and generate a deck of cards. Alongside these fundamentals, we also covered the rules of the game, which include maintaining a total card value of 21 or closest to it without exceeding it.

As Blackjack is a game of chance, it is essential to remember that shuffling the deck before each round helps maintain the game’s unpredictability.

Python Blackjack Game Logic

Designing the game is just one aspect of creating a functioning Blackjack game in Python. In this article, we’ll dive further into the game’s logic and understand how it works from a programming perspective.

We’ll also provide a complete Python code for the game.

Declaring important game variables

In Python, we need to declare essential game variables such as players’ names, their scores, and the scores of the dealer. We’ll also require other parameters like “cards in the deck,” “dealer opponent,” “number of players,” and “players’ current hand values”.

These variables will help the program identify if the game is still in progress or if one of the players has won. First Phase of Dealing: Mandatory cards

Once the game’s parameters have been defined, the first phase of dealing begins.

During this phase, each player is dealt two mandatory cards. The dealer receives one card face up and one card face down.

The total hands of players are then calculated. In this phase, a player may receive a hand value of 21, which would make it a natural blackjack, and the game would end.

However, if no one makes a natural blackjack, the game progresses to the next phase. Second phase of dealing: Player’s choices

Now, the players have to make choices.

Players may choose actions such as hit, stand, split, or double down. If a player chooses to hit, the player will draw an additional card and receive a new hand value.

If the player chooses to stand, their hand value will remain the same. If a player’s hand value is 21 or above, they will bust, and the program will end the game with the dealer automatically winning.

Final phase of dealing: Dealer’s cards

Once all the players have completed their turn, it’s the dealer’s turn to play. If the dealer’s cards’ total value is below 17, the dealer must hit until they achieve a value of 17 or higher.

If the dealer busts, all the players who did not bust, automatically win the game. Otherwise, the dealer’s hand value is compared to each player’s hand value.

The End Game

Finally, we reach the end of the game. The program identifies the winners and determines the score.

The player with the highest score below 21 is declared the winner.

Complete Python Code for Blackjack game

Now that we’ve understood the game’s logic let’s look at the complete code for the Blackjack game:


import random

class Card:

def __init__(self, suit, value):

self.suit = suit

self.value = value

def __repr__(self):

return self.value + ” of ” + self.suit

class Deck:

suits = [“Hearts”, “Diamonds”, “Clubs”, “Spades”]

values = [“A”, “2”, “3”, “4”, “5”, “6”, “7”, “8”, “9”, “10”, “J”, “Q”, “K”]

def __init__(self): = [Card(suit, value) for suit in self.suits for value in self.values]

def shuffle(self):

return random.shuffle(

def deal_card(self):


class Player:

def __init__(self, name): = name

self.hand = []

def add_card(self, card):


def get_value(self):

hand_value = 0

ace_count = 0

for card in self.hand:

if card.value == “A”:

hand_value += 11

ace_count += 1

elif card.value.isnumeric():

hand_value += int(card.value)


hand_value += 10

while hand_value > 21 and ace_count:

hand_value -= 10

ace_count -= 1

return hand_value



print(“Welcome to Blackjack! Let’s get started…”)

deck = Deck()


player_name = input(“What is your name? “)

player = Player(player_name)

dealer = Player(“Dealer”)

for i in range(2):



game_over = False

while not game_over:

player_choice = input(“Would you like to Hit or Stand?


if player_choice == “hit”:


elif player_choice == “stand”:


if player.get_value() > 21:

print(f”{}, you bust! The dealer wins.”)

game_over = True

dealer_total = dealer.get_value()

while dealer_total < 17:


dealer_total = dealer.get_value()

print(“Dealer’s cards: ” + str(dealer.hand[1:]) + ” (” + str(dealer_total) + “)”)

player_total = player.get_value()

if player_total > 21:

print(f”Dealer wins. {} busts with {player_total}.”)

elif dealer_total > 21:

print(f”{player_name} wins! Dealer busts with {dealer_total}.”)

elif dealer_total > player_total:

print(f”Dealer wins with {dealer_total}.

{player_name} has {player_total}.”)

elif player_total > dealer_total:

print(f”{player_name} wins with {player_total}. Dealer has {dealer_total}.”)


print(“It’s a draw!”)




In conclusion, building a Blackjack game in Python involves designing the game’s logic and writing the code. The logic revolves around dealing cards, players’ choices, dealer’s cards, and the end game.

This logic is coded using class definitions, game variables, input/output statements, and logical constructs such as if/else statements. By understanding the game’s logic and implementing it in Python, we can design a fully functional game.

In summary, this article explored the fundamental aspects of designing a Blackjack game in Python. We covered essential game variables, the phases of dealing, and the end game.

By understanding these elements and implementing them effectively, we can create exciting and engaging games that provide a thrilling gambling experience. As Python continues to gain popularity, mastering the game’s logic and coding skills is becoming increasingly important for aspiring developers.

With the code provided in this article and a strong understanding of the game’s principles, anyone can create their own Python Blackjack game. Remember, the key to successful programming is patience, determination, and practice.

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