## Converting a NumPy Array of Floats to Integers: Methods and Examples

NumPy is a popular numerical computing library for Python. It provides powerful array and matrix operations that are essential for scientific computing, data analysis, and machine learning.

NumPy arrays can store data of different types, including integers, floats, and complex numbers. However, sometimes it may be necessary to convert a NumPy array of floats to integers for various reasons, such as memory efficiency, display format, or algorithmic requirements.

### Method 1: Convert Floats to Integers (Rounded Down)

The first method of converting NumPy arrays of floats to integers is to round the floats down to the nearest integer using the floor function and then cast the result to integers using the astype method.

This method is useful when we want to truncate the decimal part of the floats and only keep the integer part. We can perform this operation as follows:

```
import numpy as np
float_array = np.array([1.1, 2.2, 3.9, 4.5, 5.8])
rounded_down_integer_array = np.floor(float_array).astype(int)
print(rounded_down_integer_array)
```

Output: [1 2 3 4 5]

In this code snippet, we first create a NumPy array of five floats with different decimal parts. Then, we apply the floor function to each float using the np.floor method, which rounds down the float to the nearest integer.

Finally, we convert the resulting array of floats to an array of integers using the astype(int) method.

### Method 2: Convert Floats to Integers (Rounded to Nearest Integer)

The second method of converting NumPy arrays of floats to integers is to round the floats to the nearest integer using the rint function and then cast the result to integers using the astype method.

This method is useful when we want to round the floats to the nearest integer and keep the decimal part if it is non-zero. We can perform this operation as follows:

```
import numpy as np
float_array = np.array([1.1, 2.2, 3.9, 4.5, 5.8])
rounded_integer_array = np.rint(float_array).astype(int)
print(rounded_integer_array)
```

Output: [1 2 4 5 6]

In this code snippet, we use the np.rint method to round each float to the nearest integer. This method rounds the floats to the nearest even integer if the decimal part is exactly 0.5, which is a convention commonly used in mathematics and statistics.

We can then cast the resulting array of rounded floats to an array of integers using the astype(int) method.

### Method 3: Convert Floats to Integers (Rounded Up)

The third method of converting NumPy arrays of floats to integers is to round the floats up to the nearest integer using the ceil function and then cast the result to integers using the astype method.

This method is useful when we want to round the floats up to the nearest integer and discard the decimal part. We can perform this operation as follows:

```
import numpy as np
float_array = np.array([1.1, 2.2, 3.9, 4.5, 5.8])
rounded_up_integer_array = np.ceil(float_array).astype(int)
print(rounded_up_integer_array)
```

Output: [2 3 4 5 6]

In this code snippet, we use the np.ceil method to round each float up to the nearest integer. This method always rounds up, regardless of the decimal part of the float.

We can then cast the resulting array of rounded floats to an array of integers using the astype(int) method.

## Examples of Converting NumPy Arrays of Floats to Integers

### Example 1: Convert Floats to Integers (Rounded Down)

Suppose we have a NumPy array of floats that represent grades of students in a class, and we want to convert them to integers that represent the corresponding letter grades (A, B, C, D, or F).

#### We can define the grading scheme as follows:

```
import numpy as np
float_grades = np.array([92.3, 85.7, 79.1, 67.4, 54.8])
letter_grades = np.array(['A', 'B', 'C', 'D', 'F'])
thresholds = np.array([90, 80, 70, 60])
```

In this code snippet, we define a NumPy array of five floats representing the grades of five students. We also define a NumPy array of five strings representing the letter grades they correspond to according to a grading scheme that is based on four thresholds.

For example, a grade above or equal to 90 is considered an A, and a grade below 60 is considered an F. Note that these thresholds are not evenly spaced, and that the ranges between the thresholds overlap.

To convert the float grades to integer grades, we can use method 1 as follows:

```
rounded_down_grades = np.floor(float_grades / 10).astype(int)
integer_grades = letter_grades[4 - rounded_down_grades]
print(integer_grades)
```

Output: [‘A’ ‘B’ ‘C’ ‘D’ ‘F’]

In this code snippet, we first divide each float grade by 10 and round it down to the nearest integer using the np.floor method, which converts the float grade to an integer based on the tens digit. For example, 92.3 becomes 9, 85.7 becomes 8, etc.

We then subtract the resulting array from 4 and use the resulting array as an index into the letter_grades array, which gives us the corresponding letter grade for each rounded-down integer grade.

### Example 2: Convert Floats to Integers (Rounded to Nearest Integer)

Suppose we have a NumPy array of floats that represent temperatures in Celsius, and we want to convert them to integers that represent the corresponding temperatures in Fahrenheit.

We can use the following formula: Fahrenheit = Celsius * 1.8 + 32. We can define the array of Celsius temperatures as follows:

```
import numpy as np
celsius_temperatures = np.array([-10.1, 0, 15.4, 23.9, 31.7])
```

In this code snippet, we define a NumPy array of five floats representing the Celsius temperatures. To convert the Celsius temperatures to Fahrenheit temperatures, we can use method 2 as follows:

```
rounded_fahrenheit_temperatures = np.rint(celsius_temperatures * 1.8 + 32).astype(int)
print(rounded_fahrenheit_temperatures)
```

Output: [14 32 60 75 89]

In this code snippet, we first apply the formula for converting Celsius to Fahrenheit to each float temperature. We then round the resulting array of Fahrenheit temperatures to the nearest integer using the np.rint method.

Finally, we cast the resulting array of rounded Fahrenheit temperatures to an array of integers using the astype(int) method.

### Example 3: Convert Floats to Integers (Rounded Up)

Suppose we have a NumPy array of floats that represent prices of products, and we want to convert them to integers that represent the corresponding prices in cents.

#### We can define the array of prices as follows:

```
import numpy as np
float_prices = np.array([5.99, 9.95, 19.99, 49.99, 99.95])
```

In this code snippet, we define a NumPy array of five floats representing the prices of five products. To convert the float prices to integer prices in cents, we can use method 3 as follows:

```
rounded_up_cents_prices = np.ceil(float_prices * 100).astype(int)
print(rounded_up_cents_prices)
```

Output: [600 995 1999 5000 9995]

In this code snippet, we first multiply each float price by 100 to convert it to cents and round it up to the nearest cent using the np.ceil method. Finally, we cast the resulting array of rounded-up cents prices to an array of integers using the astype(int) method.

## Conclusion

In this article, we have explored three methods of converting NumPy arrays of floats to integers, and provided examples for each method. By rounding down, rounding to the nearest integer, or rounding up, we can convert float data to integer data with different degrees of precision and interpretability.

The choice of method depends on the specific application and the desired outcome. NumPy provides many useful functions and methods for performing numerical computations and data processing, and understanding how to use them effectively is crucial for mastering scientific computing and data analysis.

In this article, we covered three methods of converting NumPy arrays of floats to integers. By rounding down, rounding to the nearest integer, or rounding up, we can convert float data to integer data with different degrees of precision and interpretability.

We showed examples of using these methods for different tasks, such as converting grades to letter grades, converting temperatures to Fahrenheit, or converting prices to cents. Understanding how to use these methods effectively is crucial for mastering scientific computing and data analysis.

NumPy provides many useful functions and methods for performing numerical computations and data processing, and these methods are essential tools for manipulating data and preparing it for analysis.