## Groupby() Function in Pandas

Have you ever found yourself in a situation where you had a large dataset, and you needed to group the data by two columns and then calculate some summary statistics for another column? You are not alone in this because this situation is relatively common when working with data.

Luckily, Pandas has a powerful function called groupby() that allows you to perform this task with ease.

## Syntax for Grouping by Two Columns and Aggregating Another Column

To group your data by two columns and calculate summary statistics for another column, you need to use the groupby() function in Pandas. The syntax for this function is as follows:

`df.groupby(['column_1', 'column_2']).agg({'column_3': 'statistic'})`

Where ‘column_1’ and ‘column_2’ are the names of the columns you want to group your data by, and ‘column_3’ is the name of the column you want to perform the calculation on.

The ‘statistic’ parameter can be replaced by any summary statistic that you want to calculate, such as mean, max, count, etc. Example 1: Groupby Two Columns and Calculate Mean of Another Column

Let’s assume that we have a dataset that contains information about teams, their positions, and the number of points they scored.

We can use the groupby() function to group the data by the team and the position columns and then calculate the mean of the points column. The code for this task would be as follows:

`df.groupby(['team', 'position']).agg({'points': 'mean'})`

This code will group the data by the team and position columns and then calculate the mean of the points column for each group.

Example 2: Groupby Two Columns and Calculate Max of Another Column

If we wanted to calculate the maximum number of points scored by each team position, we would use the following code:

`df.groupby(['team', 'position']).agg({'points': 'max'})`

This code will group the data by the team and position columns and then calculate the maximum number of points for each group. Example 3: Groupby Two Columns and Count Occurrences of Each Combination

If we wanted to count the number of times each team and position combination occurred in the dataset, we would use the following code:

`df.groupby(['team', 'position']).size()`

This code will group the data by the team and position columns and then count the number of occurrences of each combination.

## Creating Pandas DataFrame

Apart from using the groupby() function, creating a Pandas DataFrame is another essential task when working with data. In Pandas, this is done using the DataFrame() function.

## Syntax for Creating Pandas DataFrame

The syntax for creating a Pandas DataFrame is as follows:

```
df = pd.DataFrame({'column_1': [value_1, value_2, value_3, ...],
'column_2': [value_1, value_2, value_3, ...],
'column_3': [value_1, value_2, value_3, ...],
... })
```

Here, the ‘column_x’ represents the name of the column, while [value_1, value_2, value_3, …] represents the values in the respective column.

Example DataFrame: Team, Position, and Points

Suppose we have a dataset with information about several teams, their positions, and the number of points they scored. We can create a Pandas DataFrame to store this data using the following code:

### import pandas as pd

```
team = ['Team A', 'Team B', 'Team C', 'Team D', 'Team E']
position = ['Forward', 'Defender', 'Midfielder', 'Forward', 'Defender']
points = [50, 30, 40, 60, 35]
df = pd.DataFrame({'Team': team, 'Position': position, 'Points': points})
```

This code will create a DataFrame with three columns: Team, Position, and Points. The DataFrame will contain the values we specified in the team, position, and points lists.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, the groupby() function is a powerful tool that allows you to group data by one or multiple columns and calculate useful summary statistics quickly. Furthermore, using the DataFrame() function is an essential task when working with data in Pandas.

By understanding the syntax of these functions, you can effectively manipulate and analyze your datasets to derive meaningful insights.

## Viewing Pandas DataFrame

After creating a Pandas DataFrame, it is essential to view its contents to ensure that the data is correctly formatted. Pandas provides various methods for you to view your DataFrame’s contents.

## Syntax for Viewing Pandas DataFrame

The syntax for viewing a Pandas DataFrame is as follows:

`df.head()`

This syntax will show the first five rows of the DataFrame. You can also use the tail() method to show the last five rows of the DataFrame:

`df.tail()`

Additionally, you can specify the number of rows you want to view by passing an integer value to the head() or tail() method:

```
df.head(10)
df.tail(10)
```

## Example of Viewing Pandas DataFrame: Team, Position, and Points

Let us continue working with the Team, Position, and Points DataFrame that we created earlier.

To view the first five rows of the DataFrame, we can use the following code:

`df.head()`

### This will produce the following output:

```
Team Position Points
0 Team A Forward 50
1 Team B Defender 30
2 Team C Midfielder 40
3 Team D Forward 60
4 Team E Defender 35
```

Similarly, to see the last five rows of the DataFrame, we can use the code:

`df.tail()`

### This will produce the following output:

```
Team Position Points
0 Team A Forward 50
1 Team B Defender 30
2 Team C Midfielder 40
3 Team D Forward 60
4 Team E Defender 35
```

## Analyzing Pandas DataFrame

After creating and viewing a Pandas DataFrame, the next essential task is to analyze the data. In Pandas, there are several methods available to do this, allowing you to calculate statistical measures such as mean, max, count, and standard deviation for the various columns of your DataFrame.

## Syntax for Analyzing Pandas DataFrame

To analyze a Pandas DataFrame, you can use various functions built into the Pandas library. The syntax for some of the most commonly used functions is as follows:

### To get a statistical summary of the DataFrame:

`df.describe()`

### To calculate the mean of a column in the DataFrame:

`df['column_name'].mean()`

### To calculate the maximum value of a column in the DataFrame:

`df['column_name'].max()`

To calculate the number of non-null values in a column:

`df['column_name'].count()`

You can also use the groupby() function, as discussed earlier, to group your data by one or more columns and calculate aggregate functions such as mean, max, and count.

Example of Analyzing Pandas DataFrame: Team, Position, and Points

Let us continue using the Team, Position, and Points DataFrame to demonstrate how to analyze data in Pandas. To get a statistical summary of the DataFrame, we can use the describe() function:

`df.describe()`

### This will produce the following output:

```
Points
count 5.000000
mean 43.000000
std 11.135529
min 30.000000
25% 35.000000
50% 40.000000
75% 50.000000
max 60.000000
```

The above output shows us the count, mean, standard deviation, minimum value, 25th percentile, median, 75th percentile, and maximum value for the Points column.

If we wanted to calculate the mean, maximum value, and count of points for each team and position using the groupby() function, we can use the following code:

`df.groupby(['Team', 'Position']).agg({'Points': ['mean', 'max', 'count']})`

### This code will produce the following output:

```
Points
mean max count
Team Position
Team A Forward 50 50 1
Team B Defender 32 35 2
Team C Midfielder 40 40 1
Team D Forward 60 60 1
Team E Defender 35 35 1
```

This output shows us the mean, maximum value, and count of points for each team and position in the DataFrame.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, Pandas provides several built-in functions that enable you to view and analyze your DataFrame’s contents. The syntax for these functions is straightforward, making it easy to work with large datasets.

Knowing how to view and analyze data is vital when working with data science and analysis, and mastering these concepts will help you derive meaningful insights from your datasets. In this article, we covered the basics of Pandas DataFrame by discussing essential topics such as the syntax for grouping and aggregating data using groupby() function, creating a DataFrame using DataFrame() function, viewing the contents of a DataFrame using built-in functions such as head() and tail(), and analyzing a DataFrame using built-in functions such as mean(), max(), count() and groupby().

These concepts are essential in data science and analysis and can assist in deriving meaningful insights from large datasets. Understanding and mastering these concepts is crucial for any data scientist or analyst to make informed decisions while working with data.