## Math Functions and Number Methods

Mathematics is one of the core subjects taught in schools all around the world. As we grow, we begin to learn about arithmetic, geometry, algebra, and many other fundamental concepts.

Among these concepts, we come across various math functions and number methods used to perform tasks like rounding numbers, calculating the exponents, and determining the absolute value of numbers. In this article, we will dive deeper into some of the most commonly used math functions and number methods.

## 1. round()

### The round() function

The `round()`

function is used to round off a given number to the nearest integer. This function takes one or two arguments.

The first argument is the number to be rounded, and the second argument is the number of decimal places to round to. If the second argument is not provided, the number is rounded off to the nearest integer.

Here’s an example:

`round(3.14) # Output: 3`

In the above example, we passed the value 3.14 to the `round()`

function, which returned 3, the nearest integer. For instance, if we pass a value of 7.5 to the `round()`

function, it can return either 7 or 8, depending on the rounding ties to even strategy.

### Rounding ties to even strategy

The rounding ties to even strategy is a way of resolving ties during rounding. When a number is exactly halfway between two possible rounding-up values such as integers, it is rounded up or down to the nearest even number.

Here’s an example:

`round(2.5) # Output: 2`

`round(3.5) # Output: 4`

In the above example, the value of 2.5 is being rounded. Since 2 is already an even number, it remains unchanged.

The value of 3.5 is being rounded, and since it lies halfway between 3 or 4, it gets rounded up to the nearest even number, which is 4.

### Rounding to a given number of decimal places

As mentioned earlier, the second argument to the `round()`

function specifies the number of decimal places to round off to. Here’s an example:

`round(3.14159, 2) # Output: 3.14`

The above code will round 3.14159 to 2 decimal places, resulting in the value 3.14.

## 2. abs()

### The abs() function

The `abs()`

function is used to determine the absolute value of a number. The absolute value of a number represents the distance of the number from zero on the number line.

The returned value is always positive. Here’s an example:

`abs(-5) # Output: 5`

`abs(5) # Output: 5`

In the above example, we passed -5 and 5 to the `abs()`

function, which returned 5 in both cases.

## 3. pow()

### The pow() function

The `pow()`

function is used to raise a number to the power of another number. The `pow()`

function takes two arguments, the base and the exponent.

Here’s an example:

`pow(2, 3) # Output: 8`

The above code will raise 2 to the power of 3, resulting in the value 8. Another commonly used operator for exponentiation is the `**`

operator.

Here’s an example:

`2 ** 3 # Output: 8`

The above code is an equivalent statement to `pow(2,3)`

. It will raise 2 to the power of 3, resulting in the value 8.

### .is_integer() method

The `.is_integer()`

method is a built-in method used with floating-point numbers. It returns `True`

if the given number is an integer, and `False`

if otherwise.

### For example:

`(5.0).is_integer() # Output: True`

`(5.5).is_integer() # Output: False`

In the above example, we used the `.is_integer()`

method to check whether 5.0 and 5.5 are integers. The first value returns `True`

, while the second value returns `False`

.

## 4. Finding the Absolute Value With abs()

Mathematical calculations can be performed with integers and decimal numbers.

However, we will sometimes need to work with negative numbers, which can produce unexpected results when performing certain calculations. The absolute value of a number negates any negative sign, converting the value to a positive number, removing any ambiguity during mathematical calculations.

### Calculation of absolute value

To calculate the absolute value of a number, we can use the built-in `abs()`

function. The `abs()`

function takes a single argument representing the number for which we want to calculate the absolute value.

Let’s take a look at an example:

`x = -5`

`abs(x) # Output: 5`

In this example, we assign the value -5 to a variable, and we then pass it to the `abs()`

function. The output will be 5, which is the absolute value of -5.

The `abs()`

function works with float numbers as well. For example:

`y = -3.14159`

`abs(y) # Output: 3.14159`

In this example, we assign the float value -3.14159 to a variable and pass it to the `abs()`

function.

The output will be 3.14159, which is the absolute value of -3.14159. The `abs()`

function can be used in combination with other mathematical operations to produce desired results.

### For example:

`x = -5`

`y = 3`

`z = abs(x) * y # Output: 15`

In this example, we multiply the absolute value of -5 with 3 to obtain the value 15.

## 5. Raising a Number to a Power With pow()

### The pow() function

The `pow()`

function is a built-in function in Python used to raise a number to a given power.

The function takes in two arguments, the base number, and the exponent. It raises the base number to the power of the exponent provided as the second argument.

### Using ** operator

In Python, the double asterisk (**) operator can be used to raise a number to a power, and it works in the same way as the `pow()`

function. Here’s an example:

`x = 2`

`y = x ** 3`

`print(y) # Output: 8`

In this example, we assign the value 2 to a variable and then use the ** operator to raise it to the power of 3.

The output will be 8.

### Difference between ** and pow()

Although the ** operator and `pow()`

function produce the same result, there is a difference between the two.

The `pow()`

function has an optional third argument, which specifies the modulus of the computation. The modulus determines what value to return when the base number is negative.

### For example:

`x = -2`

`y = 3`

`result = pow(x, y, 5)`

`print(result) # Output: 3`

In this example, we use the `pow()`

function to raise -2 to the power of 3 and take the modulus of the result with 5. The output will be 3.

On the other hand, using ** operator does not allow us to define the modulus. Here’s an example:

`x = -2`

`y = 3`

`result = x ** y % 5`

`print(result) # Output: 3`

In this example, we use the ** operator to raise -2 to the power of 3 and take the modulus of the result with 5.

The output will be 3, just like the `pow()`

example.

## 6. Checking if a Float Is Integral

When working with numbers, we may need to determine whether a float value is integral or fractional. In Python, there are several ways to perform this task, such as using the `round()`

function or the `int()`

function.

The easiest method is to use the `.is_integer()`

method, which is a built-in method of float objects.

### Number methods

Number methods are functions that can be used to manipulate numbers. Python provides many built-in number methods that can be used to validate user input or perform mathematical calculations.

Some of these methods are available for all number types in Python, while others are specific to certain types.

### .is_integer() method

The `.is_integer()`

method is a built-in method of float objects in Python.

This method returns `True`

if the float value is integral, and `False`

if it has a fractional part. Here’s an example:

`x = 5.0`

`y = 5.5`

`print(x.is_integer()) # Output: True`

`print(y.is_integer()) # Output: False`

In this example, we create two float variables, x and y.

We then use the `.is_integer()`

method to check whether each value is integral. The output for x will be `True`

because it has no decimal places, while the output for y will be `False`

because it has a fractional part.

We can use the `.is_integer()`

method to validate user input. For example, suppose that we need to prompt the user to enter a float value that must be integral.

We can use the `.is_integer()`

method to check whether the input is valid. Here’s an example:

`value = input("Enter a float value: ")`

`if float(value).is_integer():`

` print("Valid input")`

`else:`

` print("Invalid input")`

In this example, we prompt the user to enter a float value, which we then convert to a float using the `float()`

function.

We then use the `.is_integer()`

method to see whether the input is valid. If the input is integral, we print “Valid input”, and if not, we print “Invalid input”.

The `.is_integer()`

method is useful since it can help us perform validations while accepting float values as input. We can use it to build more complex applications, such as data analysis or scientific computation, where precision is essential.

## Conclusion

In this article, we have explored the `.is_integer()`

method of float objects in Python, which allows us to check whether a float has an integral value. We have seen how the method can be used to validate user input and how it can be incorporated into more complex applications.

Python provides many built-in number methods to assist with various mathematical operations, and the `.is_integer()`

method is just one of them. Knowing these methods can help us perform calculations more efficiently and produce more accurate results.

In this article, we delved into several important math functions and number methods that are used when working with mathematical calculations in Python. We explored the `round()`

, `abs()`

, `pow()`

functions, and the `.is_integer()`

method for float objects.

The `round()`

function is used to round off a given number while the `abs()`

function calculates the absolute value of a number. The `pow()`

function raises a number to a given power, and the ** operator is an equivalent method.

The `.is_integer()`

method returns true when a float is of integer value. We also learned about the differences between ** and `pow()`

functions.

Understanding and using these functions can lead to more accurate mathematical calculations in Python, making them an essential tool for data analysis and scientific computations.