## QR Factorization using NumPy’s linalg.qr() Function

Matrix operations and linear algebra can often feel intimidating and overwhelming to those who are not mathematically inclined. However, the Python library NumPy provides a simple way to perform matrix calculations with the `linalg.qr()`

function.

### Understanding QR Factorization

QR factorization is a fundamental concept in linear algebra that decomposes a matrix into an orthogonal and an upper triangular matrix. The resulting matrices Q and R have unique properties that can be used to solve a variety of problems.

**Orthogonal Matrix:**A square matrix where every column and row is orthonormal, meaning that each vector has a length of one and is perpendicular to all other vectors in the matrix.**Upper Triangular Matrix:**A matrix where all the entries below the diagonal are zero.

### Using NumPy’s linalg.qr()

Using `linalg.qr()`

, we can easily compute the QR factorization of a matrix. The function takes a single input, “a”, which is the matrix that we want to factorize.

The output is a tuple containing the Q and R matrices. In addition to the standard usage, the `linalg.qr()`

function also provides modes for different types of factorization.

### Modes of linalg.qr()

**“reduced”:**Computes a thin Q matrix, where the number of columns is equal to the rank of the input matrix.**“complete”:**Computes a full Q matrix.**“r”:**Returns only the upper triangular R matrix.**“raw”:**Returns both the Q and R matrices in their raw forms without any additional operations.

### Dimensions of Q and R Matrices

The dimensions of Q and R matrices depend on the shape of the input matrix “a”. If “a” has dimensions m by n, then Q has dimensions m by k, where k is the number of linearly independent columns of “a”.

R has dimensions k by n, where k is the minimum of m and n.

### Relationship Between Q and R Matrices

The relationship between Q and R matrices is crucial in the QR factorization. Multiplying Q and R matrices together gives back the original matrix “a”. This relationship can also be used to solve systems of linear equations, where the QR factorization is used to simplify the computation of the inverse of a matrix.

## Use Cases for Different Modes of linalg.qr()

### QR Factorization using Default Mode:

The default mode of the `linalg.qr()`

function is used to compute the QR factorization of a matrix with a thin Q matrix. This mode is useful when we do not require the complete Q matrix and only need the R matrix.

One use case for this mode is to solve systems of linear equations. Given a system of equations Ax=b, we can use the QR factorization to compute the least squares solution.

We first compute the QR factorization of A, such that A = Q*R, and then we solve the equation R*x = Q.T*b using back-substitution.

### QR Factorization using Complete Mode:

The complete mode of the `linalg.qr()`

function is used to compute the QR factorization of a matrix with a full Q matrix. The full Q matrix includes all the orthogonal columns of the input matrix and has dimensions m x m.

Since the Q matrix has orthonormal columns, it can be used to solve the eigenvalue problem. Given a matrix A, we can compute its eigenvalues and eigenvectors using the QR factorization.

We first obtain the QR factorization of A such that A = Q*R. We then compute the eigenvalues of R, which are the diagonal entries of R. Finally, we compute the eigenvectors of A using the formula V = Q*D, where D is a diagonal matrix with the eigenvalues on the diagonal.

### QR Factorization using R Mode:

The R mode of the `linalg.qr()`

function is used to obtain only the upper triangular R matrix of the QR factorization. This mode is useful when we only require the R matrix and do not need the Q matrix.

One use case for this mode is to compute the pseudoinverse of a matrix. The pseudoinverse is defined as (A.T * A)^-1 * A.T. Using the R factorization, we can compute the pseudoinverse as A_pseudoinv = R^-1 * Q.T, where R^-1 is the inverse of the upper triangular R matrix, and Q.T is the transpose of the Q matrix.

### QR Factorization using Raw Mode:

The raw mode of the `linalg.qr()`

function returns both the Q and R matrices in their explicit forms. The Q matrix is stored as a m x h matrix, and the R matrix is stored as a h x n upper triangular matrix.

Additionally, the function returns the reflection coefficients tau as an array of length h. One use case for this mode is to compute the QR factorization with a high-performance implementation.

NumPy uses the LAPACK library to compute the QR factorization, which provides a fast and accurate implementation of the algorithm. By using the raw mode, we can generate the Q and R matrices in their raw forms and use them with other LAPACK routines for even more significant performance improvements.

## Conclusion

The `linalg.qr()`

function in NumPy provides us with various modes to compute the QR factorization of a matrix. The different modes offer different outputs, making them applicable for various mathematical problems.

The default mode is useful for solving systems of linear equations, complete mode for eigenvalues and eigenvectors, R mode for computing the pseudoinverse, while the raw mode for high-performance computing. Understanding the various modes of `linalg.qr()`

can help you optimize computations and solve complex matrix problems in a straightforward manner.

Overall, the `linalg.qr()`

function in NumPy provides a powerful and efficient way of computing the QR factorization of a matrix. The function offers multiple modes to obtain different outputs, such as the full Q matrix, R matrix, or both in their raw form. These different modes can be used to solve various mathematical problems, such as linear equations, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors. By understanding the functionality and use cases of `linalg.qr()`

, we can optimize computations and solve complex matrix problems with ease.