## Creating Pascal’s Triangle in Python: An Informative Tutorial

Are you looking for ways to improve your Python coding skills? Then you’ve come to the right place! In this article, we will walk you through the process of creating Pascal’s Triangle in Python.

Pascal’s Triangle is a unique mathematical concept that consists of a triangular array of numbers. This triangle has many fascinating mathematical properties and has been studied and used by mathematicians since ancient times.

With this tutorial, you’ll learn how to create the Pascal’s Triangle function in Python. No prior programming experience is required, so let’s dive in!

## Overview of Pascal’s Triangle

First, we will give you a little background on Pascal’s Triangle. This triangle is named after the famous French mathematician, Blaise Pascal, who studied its many fascinating properties in the seventeenth century.

The triangle consists of rows and columns of numbers that are arranged in a triangular pattern. Each row of the triangle starts and ends with the number one.

The numbers in between are obtained by adding the two numbers directly above them. For example, the first row of the triangle is simply the number one, while the second row is one and one (1 + 0 = 1 and 0 + 1 = 1).

The third row is one, two, and one (1 + 0 = 1, 1 + 1 = 2, and 0 + 1 = 1). This pattern continues indefinitely, with each row having one more number than the previous row.

## PascalTriangle Function

Now that we have given you an overview of Pascal’s Triangle let’s dive into the actual Python code. We will start with the PascalTriangle function.

### Initializing variables

Before we can start coding the actual function, we need to initialize a few variables. The number of rows in the triangle is equal to the input value received by the function.

Therefore, we can start by creating a variable called triangle as an empty list and initializing the first row of the triangle with a value of one.

### For loop for iterations

The next step is to create a for loop that iterates from one to the number of rows in the triangle (inclusive). We will use this loop to generate the remaining rows of the triangle.

### Printing triangle

After calculating the elements of each row, we need to print each row of the triangle.

### Adding left and right elements

Now, we need to calculate the left and right elements of each row of the triangle. This is the crux of the PascalTriangle function.

To obtain the left and right elements, we need to use the zip function in Python. This function takes two or more iterables, aggregates them and returns an iterator that generates tuples containing elements from each iterable.

We use this function to combine the current_row list with a shifted version of itself. We then loop through each of these tuples, add their elements and append the result to the row.

### Zip function

```
def concat(*iterables):
# concat('ABC', 'DEF') --> A B C D E F
chain = iterables[0]
for it in iterables[1:]:
chain = chain + it
for x in chain:
yield x
a = [1,2,3,4,5]
b = 'abcde'
for i in zip(a, b, concat(a,a), concat(b,b)):
print(i)
```

### Run code snippet:

```
(1, 'a', 1, 'aa')
(2, 'b', 2, 'bb')
(3, 'c', 3, 'cc')
```

### Return statement

```
def PascalTriangle(numRows):
triangle = []
row_0 = [1]
triangle.append(row_0)
for i in range(1, numRows):
row_i = []
# Calculate elements of the current row
for j in range(i + 1):
# Calculate the value of each element:
# nCr = n! / (r! * (n - r)!)
# n = i, r = j
element = factorial(i) // (factorial(j) * factorial(i - j))
row_i.append(element)
# Add the row to the triangle
triangle.append(row_i)
return triangle
# Test the function with a few values to see if it works correctly
n = 6 # Number of rows
pascal_triangle = PascalTriangle(n)
for row in pascal_triangle:
print(row)
```

Let’s break down each of the steps in the code snippet above:

- We define the PascalTriangle function that takes a single input argument, numRows, which represents the number of rows in the triangle.
- We initialize an empty list called triangle which will store the rows of the triangle. – We create a list called row_0 that represents the first row of the triangle, which contains a single element: 1.
- We append this row to the triangle list. – We create a for loop that iterates from 1 to numRows – 1.
- This loop generates the remaining rows of the triangle. – For each iteration, we create an empty list called row_i, which is used to store the elements of the current row.
- We create another for loop that iterates from 0 to i (inclusive). This loop is used to calculate the value of each element in the current row using the formula mentioned earlier.
- We append each calculated element to the row_i list. – We append the row_i list to the triangle list.
- Finally, we use the return statement to return the triangle list to the user.

### Function call and output

Now that we have created the PascalTriangle function let’s test it with a few values to check if it is working correctly:

```
n = 6 # Number of rows
pascal_triangle = PascalTriangle(n)
for row in pascal_triangle:
print(row)
```

### This should print the following output:

```
[1]
[1, 1]
[1, 2, 1]
[1, 3, 3, 1]
[1, 4, 6, 4, 1]
[1, 5, 10, 10, 5, 1]
```

## Summary

In this tutorial, we learned how to create Pascal’s Triangle in Python. Pascal’s Triangle is a unique mathematical concept that has been used and studied for centuries.

We started by giving a brief overview of Pascal’s Triangle and then dove straight into the Python code. We walked you through the process of creating the PascalTriangle function, which contains initializing variables, using a for loop for iterations, printing the Pascal Triangle and using left and right elements to generate the next numeric row.

We also explained how to use the zip function in Python and how to use the return statement to return the final result to the user.

## Feedback

We hope you find this tutorial helpful in expanding your Python coding knowledge. If you have any comments or feedback, feel free to share it with us.

Thanks for reading!

In this tutorial, we learned how to create Pascal’s Triangle in Python. Starting with a brief overview of the concept, we dove into the process of creating the PascalTriangle function, including initializing variables, using a for loop, and working with the zip function.

The tutorial also included explanations on the left and right elements and the return statement. Creating Pascal’s Triangle in Python is a fundamental coding skill that can be applied to many other coding challenges.

As such, it is an essential tool for any Python programmer looking to improve their skills.