# Mastering SQL Numeric Data Types and Table Creation: A Beginner’s Guide

## Creating Tables in SQL

Are you a beginner trying to learn SQL? Then understanding different SQL numeric data types and how to create tables using SQL is a good place to start.

## SQL Numeric Data Types

Numeric data types in SQL refer to columns that contain numbers. However, depending on the type of number, SQL has different ways of handling them through nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio data types.

To begin with, nominal data types are used to show differences between categories of data and do not display any meaningful numeric difference between values. Examples of nominal data types include gender, blood type, and political affiliation.

Next, ordinal data types show a level of difference between values but do not necessarily have precise numeric differences. Ordinal data types are often represented through which data type comes first in ranked order.

Grade levels and rankings in sports competitions are examples of ordinal data types. The interval data type displays the differences in values and indicates how much change there is between different values.

They do not have a true zero point, which means that 0 is just another value on the scale. Examples of interval data types include temperature and time.

Lastly, ratio data types have a true zero point and are used to show differences in meaningful numeric values. Examples of ratio data types include age and weight, where zero means a lack of existence.

When working with exact numeric data types, SQL provides us with the precision and scale of the number. The precision determines the number of significant digits in the value, whereas the scale determines the number of digits after the decimal point.

The NUMERIC(p,s) and DECIMAL(p,s) both provide exact numeric representations, with the former being used for maximum precision, whereas the latter can work with less memory space. In SQL, integer data types are used to represent whole numbers.

The SMALLINT, INTEGER, and BIGINT SQL data types can store whole numbers of varying sizes. The SMALLINT data type can store whole numbers between -32,768 and 32,767, INTEGER can store whole numbers between -2,147,483,648 and 2,147,483,647, and BIGINT can store whole numbers between -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 and 9,223,372,036,854,775,807.

Lastly, float data types are used to represent approximate numeric values that can hold significant amounts of decimal points. The FLOAT(p), REAL, and DOUBLE PRECISION data types are used for the approximate representation of numeric values.

The higher the value for p, the more bytes of memory will be used for the column.

## Creating Tables in SQL

To create a table in SQL, the Data Definition Language (DDL) is used to specify the structure of the table. The CREATE command is used to define the table, while the DROP command is used to delete the table.

When creating a table in SQL, the column names and data types must be specified. The column names define what information will be stored in the table, whereas the data types indicate the kind of values that the column will hold.

Common SQL data types include CHAR, VARCHAR, INT, DECIMAL, and DATE. Furthermore, LearnSQL.com provides an interactive course that teaches how to create tables in SQL.

The interactive course covers the basics of creating tables within a database, including setting up the data and column types, naming conventions, and adding primary keys. In conclusion, understanding SQL numeric data types and mastering table creation in SQL is essential in handling database management for future projects.

With a grasp of the basics, one can build on their knowledge and unlock the power of SQL. Nominal Data Types: Understanding Labels and Categories in SQL

Nominal data types are a type of data that describes variables with a name or label.

It is data that is non-numeric, often describing categories, characteristics, or attributes. Nominal data types are used to provide identity to the data.

Examples of nominal data types are student ID numbers, telephone numbers, and zip codes. Nominal data value, also known as nominal categorical variables, is data that is non-comparable and non-ordered.

In other words, nominal data types have no inherent order, and the numbers or values assigned to them do not imply any form of ranking. Their values or numbers are only labels given to a particular category.

One significant characteristic of nominal data types is that it represents a finite set of values or categories. For example, the nominal data type Gender will only have two categories, male and female.

This limitation of values provided by nominal data types makes them suitable for the creation of classes or categories. Although nominal data types are useful for classifying data, their usage has limitations.

Nominal data types cannot be measured for their size, weight, or duration. For example, phone numbers do not have a hierarchy or order that can be measured in terms of weight, height, or distance.

Therefore, nominal data types are not mutually exclusive and cannot be used to perform arithmetic operations. In SQL, nominal data types are represented using the CHAR or VARCHAR data type.

The difference between CHAR and VARCHAR is that CHAR is a fixed-length character while VARCHAR is a variable-length character. The use of CHAR reduces storage space as it occupies an exact number of bytes equal to the length of the string.

On the other hand, VARCHAR allows for more flexible storage, and any unused storage space can be freed up. Ordinal Data Types: Understanding Ranks and Orders in SQL

Ordinal data types are data that represent variables with an associated order or rank.

It is used to show relationships between variables, and therefore, there is a specific order or direction that can be used to perform arithmetic operations. Examples of ordinal data types are rank positions in a sports competition, races, and educational grade levels.

Ordinal data types represent data that is ordered in a particular way but does not necessarily come with a defined quantitative relationship between the variables. The value assigned to each category determines the order.

It is known that there is a relationship between the values, but it is not standard or evenly distributed. Examples of ordinal data types are sport competition ranks, and mood scales used to rate moods like happiness and sadness.

Unlike nominal data types, ordinal data types have a form of hierarchy. However, the values of ordinal data types are non-additive.

This means that one cannot perform arithmetic operations such as subtracting or adding two ordinal values. For example, it is incorrect to say that the difference between A and B grades is the same as the difference between B and C grades.

Although B comes after A and before C, ordinal values are only meaningful in terms of the rank of each category. In SQL, ordinal data types are represented using the INT data type.

The INT data type is a numeric data type, and each value has an assigned integer. The order of categories in ordinal data types in SQL is explained using indexes.

The values of the categories are represented by indexes that indicate the rank of each value. In conclusion, nominal and ordinal data types are two fundamental data types that are commonly used in SQL.

Nominal data types describe data values that are non-numeric and are used to provide identity to the data. On the other hand, ordinal data types are used to rank and show the hierarchy of variables.

Understanding the characteristics and limitations of each data type is essential for SQL development and more efficient data management. Interval Data Types: Understanding Measurable Differences in SQL

Interval data types refer to data that have exact differences that can be measured.

They are similar to ordinal data types with the main difference being that each category on an interval scale is separated by an equal interval of difference. The values assigned to each category on an interval data type is a numerical value, and they can be represented as numerical values in a database.

Examples of interval data types include years, dates, and personality measures that are commonly used in behavioral studies. An essential characteristic of interval data types is that it is possible to measure the amount of difference between each data value.

This is in contrast to nominal and ordinal data types, where there is no quantitative relationship between the values assigned to each category. SQL databases represent interval data types as numerical values.

The data is stored as numeric in the database, and operations such as addition and subtraction can be performed on the values. In SQL, interval data types are represented as DATE or DATETIME data types.

Using interval data types in SQL presents numerous benefits. For instance, interval data types permit the computation of known intervals between dates, times or assigned numbers.

In addition, interval data types can be used to compute age differences between individuals regardless of the date they were born.

Ratio Data Types: Understanding Measurable Differences with a Defined Zero Value in SQL

Ratio data types are data that can be measured and have defined intervals with a true zero value.

These data types have a clear relationship with math and reportable, consistent measurements. Examples of ratio data types include mass, length, duration, BMI, and money.

Like interval data types, ratio data types can be represented as numerical values in a database, and operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division can be performed on them. The significant difference between ratio data types and interval data types is that ratio data types have a defined zero point, which can be used as a reference for measurement.

For example, when measuring mass, the zero point is 0 kg, and when measuring length, the zero point is 0 meters.

Ratio scales are significant in science because they allow for measurable differences, and the relationship between the values is proportionate and equal.

For example, if an object weighs 2 kilograms, then it is two times heavier than an object that weighs one kilogram. Ratio data is a reliable data type that allows for meaningful relationships between variables; hence it is widely used in scientific research.

In SQL, ratio data types are represented by the decimal and numeric data types. These data types are used to store data that has a clear measurement and requires arithmetic operations.

One of the benefits of using ratio data types is that they allow for more precise and accurate calculations, which are necessary when working with financial and scientific data types. In conclusion, understanding the differences between nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio data types is important when working with SQL databases.

Interval data types provide measurable differences between values, whereas ratio data types deliver proportional and accurately measured distance, volume, and weight. Having a clear understanding of these data types is essential for database management and data analysis, which ultimately can deliver successful decision-making.

Common Numeric-Type Mistakes: Avoiding Precision Limits and Formula Problems in SQL

Data integrity is vital in creating and maintaining an efficient SQL database. Numeric data types, such as integer and float, are sensitive to data inconsistencies that can lead to inaccuracies in calculations and queries.

Some of the common mistakes made when working with numeric data types include exceeding precision limits, rounding errors, inconsistencies in data types, and incorrect formula input. Exceeding precision limits happens when the number of decimal places in a data value exceeds the limits defined for the numeric column type.

For example, if a NUMERIC (9,2) column type is used, this column can only store numbers with up to two decimal places. Therefore, entering a number with more than two decimal places will result in an error.

Developers must ensure that numeric column types are well-matched with the precision requirements for the system to prevent overshooting precision limits. Rounding errors occur when a calculation is performed on a number with several decimal places and the number is then rounded off to a smaller number of decimal places.

Rounding errors can significantly impact the accuracy of the calculations in a database, and it is essential to ensure that the database can handle rounding errors where they are unavoidable. Inconsistencies in data types happen when data that is stored in the wrong data type column is used.

This problem can result in incorrect calculations, and it can be difficult to detect and rectify. Program developers must ensure that each column has the right data type database system to ensure optimal performance.

Incorrect formula inputs are possible when a formula is input incorrectly. This can result in invalid calculations or inaccurate query results.

Formula input errors occur mainly due to user-related or configuration errors. Developers should double-check their formula inputs to ensure that they have been inputted appropriately to lessen the likelihood of incorrect query results and calculations.

Integer Data Types: Understanding Whole Numbers in SQL

Integer data types in SQL represent whole numbers. Similar to other numeric data types, integer data types have their own storage capacities and range constraints.

Understanding the characteristics of integer data types is critical in designing and maintaining a reliable database system. Integer data types in SQL come in various sizes, defined by the quantity of space they take up.

There are four primary types of integer data types in SQL, namely TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, and BIGINT. TINYINT can store whole numbers from -128 to 127, SMALLINT can store whole numbers from -32768 to 32767, INT can store whole numbers from -2147483648 to 2147483647, and BIGINT can store whole numbers from -9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807.

The most common types of integers used in SQL are INT and BIGINT. When working with integer data types, it is recommended to store the largest number needed in that data type; otherwise, the excess space would be wasted.

This will ensure efficient use of memory, which can lead to faster performance of the database. The storage capacity of different data types determines the range of values that can be represented in the system.

The range of an integer data type is essential, particularly when designing the schema for database systems. Storage capacity can impact various operations in a database, and in certain cases, inappropriate data types can result in errors in the system.

For example, if the numbers to be stored are outside the range of a given integer data type, the system may come up with errors or provide incorrect results on queries. In conclusion, understanding how to avoid common numeric-type mistakes and knowing the range and storage capacity of integer data types is crucial when working with SQL databases.

Developers must ensure that they have used the right numeric data type or column type and have set the precision limits correctly. When working with integers, developers must also ensure that they are using the right column type for that data type, and the value is an appropriate range to maintain optimal database performance.

This understanding will improve the overall accuracy and efficiency of the dataset and the database system as a whole. Float Data Types: Understanding Approximate Numeric Values in SQL

Float data types are a type of numeric data type that allows for the storage of approximate values.

Float data types are used when exact numerical values are not as critical as having a range of values that are significant. They are also ideal for use cases where the magnitude of a numeric value is significant rather than a precise numeric value.

Float data types in SQL use a floating-point representation system, which highlights the significant digits as well as the exponent. The FLOAT(p) data type’s predefined precision is used to represent the number, where p is the number of binary digits that can be used to represent the number.

Additionally, float data types have a defined range of acceptable values, which should be considered when selecting the necessary data type. In SQL, the main difference between FLOAT(p) and REAL data types is binary precision.