## Calculating Summary Statistics for Pandas DataFrame

Data analysis is a crucial part of today’s business world. With the vast amount of data available, it becomes extremely important to transform this data into meaningful insights.

Pandas, a widely used Python library, provides several powerful methods for data manipulation, including calculating summary statistics. Summary statistics give an overview of a dataset’s central tendencies, spread, and shape.

The most common summary statistics for a dataset are mean, median, mode, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values, and quartiles. Pandas provides multiple methods to calculate summary statistics for a DataFrame, and we will be discussing a few of them in this article.

### Method 1: Calculate Summary Statistics for All Numeric Variables

The `describe()`

function is used to generate descriptive statistics for a DataFrame. By default, it computes summary statistics for all numeric variables in the DataFrame.

It returns the count, mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values, and the quartiles. Example:

```
import pandas as pd
df = pd.read_csv('sales.csv')
df.describe()
```

The above code reads a CSV file called ‘sales.csv’ and computes summary statistics for all numeric variables in the DataFrame.

### Method 2: Calculate Summary Statistics for All String Variables

While `describe()`

computes summary statistics for all numeric variables, we may also want to compute these statistics for string variables.

For example, we can calculate the most common value, the number of unique values, and the frequency of the most common value for a string variable. To compute these statistics for string variables, we can use the `include`

parameter of the `describe()`

function.

To include string variables, we can set `include`

to ‘object’. Example:

```
import pandas as pd
df = pd.read_csv('sales.csv')
df.describe(include='object')
```

The above code reads a CSV file called ‘sales.csv’ and computes summary statistics for all string variables in the DataFrame.

### Method 3: Calculate Summary Statistics Grouped by a Variable

Sometimes, we might want to calculate summary statistics for a DataFrame grouped by a specific categorical variable.

Pandas allows us to do this using `groupby()`

. Example:

```
import pandas as pd
df = pd.read_csv('sales.csv')
df.groupby('Region').mean()
```

The above code reads a CSV file called ‘sales.csv’ and groups the data by the ‘Region’ column to calculate the mean for all numeric variables.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, summary statistics help us make sense of large datasets and extract meaningful insights. Pandas provides several powerful methods to calculate these statistics, including `describe()`

to compute the summary statistics for all numeric variables, `describe(include='object')`

to compute the summary statistics for all string variables, and `groupby()`

to calculate the summary statistics grouped by a specific categorical variable.

By using these methods to compute summary statistics on a DataFrame, we can better understand and analyze our data.

### Example 2: Calculating Summary Statistics for All String Variables

String variables are non-numeric variables that contain text data.

Examples of string variables include product names, customer names, and city names. It is not possible to compute summary statistics like mean and standard deviation for string variables.

However, we can compute other summary statistics that help us understand the data better. To compute summary statistics for all string variables, we can use the `describe()`

function.

We can set the `include`

parameter of the `describe()`

function to ‘object’ to compute the summary statistics for all string variables. Let’s consider an example:

```
import pandas as pd
df = pd.read_csv('sales.csv')
df.describe(include='object')
```

Here we have read a CSV file called ‘sales.csv’, and we want to compute summary statistics for all string variables in the DataFrame. The `describe()`

function will compute the following statistics for each string variable:

`count`

: The number of non-null values in the column`unique`

: The number of unique values in the column`top`

: The most common value in the column`freq`

: The frequency of the most common value in the column

By computing these summary statistics, we can get a better understanding of the data and identify any patterns or trends.

### Example 3: Calculating Summary Statistics Grouped by a Variable

In some cases, we may want to compute summary statistics on a DataFrame grouped by a specific categorical variable. For example, we may want to compute the mean and median sales for each product category.

Pandas allows us to group a DataFrame by a specific categorical variable using the `groupby()`

function. The `groupby()`

function creates a group of DataFrame objects based on the variable we want to group by.

We can then perform operations on the group to compute summary statistics. Let’s consider an example:

```
import pandas as pd
df = pd.read_csv('sales.csv')
grouped_df = df.groupby('Product Category')
grouped_df.mean() # computes mean sales for each product category
grouped_df.median() # computes median sales for each product category
```

Here we have read a CSV file called ‘sales.csv’ and created a grouped DataFrame object using the `groupby()`

function on the ‘Product Category’ column. We then used the `mean()`

and `median()`

functions on the grouped DataFrame object to compute summary statistics for each product category.

By computing summary statistics on a DataFrame grouped by a categorical variable, we can identify any variations or patterns in the data that might not be visible in the original dataset. This can help us make better decisions and identify areas for improvement.

## Conclusion

In this article, we discussed how to calculate summary statistics using Pandas. We learned that summary statistics are a crucial part of data analysis and help us understand the central tendencies, spread, and shape of a dataset.

We explored three methods to calculate summary statistics for a DataFrame: (1) `describe()`

to compute the summary statistics for all numeric variables, (2) `describe(include='object')`

to compute the summary statistics for all string variables, and (3) `groupby()`

to calculate summary statistics on a DataFrame grouped by a categorical variable. By using these methods, we can extract meaningful insights from our data and make data-driven decisions.

In conclusion, calculating summary statistics using Pandas is an essential part of data analysis that helps us make sense of large datasets and extract meaningful insights. We have learned that Pandas provides several powerful methods to calculate these statistics, including `describe()`

and `groupby()`

.

By using these methods, we can better understand and analyze our data, identify patterns, and make data-driven decisions. The key takeaway is that summary statistics is a vital tool for data analysis that enables us to derive insights, make informed decisions, and drive business growth.