The world of statistics can appear daunting to the uninitiated. But knowing how to analyze data can mean the difference between making an accurate diagnosis of a patient’s condition or prescribing the wrong medication.

In this article, we will discuss two statistical tests – the Friedman Test and Repeated Measures ANOVA – and how to perform them in Python. We will use an example study involving reaction times of patients on different drugs to explain these concepts.

## Example Study:

It’s important to test the effectiveness of drugs on patients before they are prescribed. In a hypothetical study, we would like to test the effects of three different drugs on patient reaction times.

The study would involve three groups of patients, each given a different drug. The reaction times of each group would be measured, and the data would be used to determine whether the drugs have any effect on how fast patients react to stimuli.

## Performing the Friedman Test in Python:

The purpose of the Friedman Test is to compare three or more groups that have been measured on the same dependent variable to see if there are any differences in their responses. In our example study, we would use the Friedman Test to compare the response times of patients in the three groups on the three different drugs.

### Entering the Data:

Before we can perform the Friedman Test, we need to enter the data into Python. We can create three arrays – group1, group2, and group3 – to represent each drug group.

Each array would contain reaction times for each patient in their respective group. Performing the Friedman Test:

Once we have entered the data, we can use the scipy.stats module’s friedmanchisquare() function to perform the Friedman Test.

```
from scipy.stats import friedmanchisquare
statistic, pvalue = friedmanchisquare(group1, group2, group3)
print(f"Test statistic: {statistic:.4f}")
print(f"P-value: {pvalue:.4f}")
```

### Interpreting the Results:

The null hypothesis in the Friedman Test is that there is no difference between the groups, while the alternative hypothesis is that there is a difference.

If the p-value is less than 0.05, we can reject the null hypothesis, indicating that there is a significant difference between the groups. We can then perform post-hoc tests to determine which group differs significantly from the others.

## Repeated Measures ANOVA:

The Repeated Measures ANOVA is similar to the Friedman Test, but it is used when we have more than one independent variable. For example, if we were testing two drugs on patients, with each patient receiving both drugs at different times, the Repeated Measures ANOVA would be appropriate.

We can perform the Repeated Measures ANOVA using the statsmodels package. We first import the package and read in our data.

```
import statsmodels.formula.api as sm
model = sm.mixedlm("reaction_time ~ drug", data=data, re_formula="~1", groups=data["patient_id"])
results = model.fit()
print(results.summary())
```

We then use the mixedlm() function to create a linear mixed-effects model, specifying the dependent variable and the two independent variables as arguments.

### Conclusion:

Performing statistical tests in Python can seem daunting at first, but it is an extremely valuable tool for data analysis.

By using the example of patient reaction times on different drugs, we have explained how to perform the Friedman Test and Repeated Measures ANOVA in Python. By understanding these tests, we can gain valuable insights into the effects of drugs on patients and make informed decisions about their treatment.

## Understanding the Friedman Test:

The Friedman Test is a non-parametric statistical test used to determine if there is a significant difference between the means of three or more groups when the same subjects are used in each group. It is often used in situations where the data is ordinal or not normally distributed.

### The Purpose of the Friedman Test:

The main purpose of the Friedman Test is to determine whether there is a significant difference in the means of multiple groups.

It is non-parametric, meaning it does not assume that the data has a particular distribution such as a normal distribution. Instead, it is designed to be used with ordinal data, which is data that can be ordered, but not necessarily measured on a numerical scale.

### Assumptions of the Friedman Test:

Before using the Friedman Test, it is important to check that the data satisfies the following assumptions:

- Independence: The data in each group must be independent of the data in the other groups.
- Random Sampling: The subjects in each group must be randomly selected.
- Ordinal Data: The data in each group must be ordinal in nature.

If these assumptions are not met, the results of the Friedman Test may be unreliable.

### Advantages and Disadvantages of the Friedman Test:

One of the main advantages of the Friedman Test is that it is very robust.

This means that it can handle outliers and other anomalies in the data without significantly affecting the results. Additionally, it is powerful, meaning it has a high chance of detecting significant differences between groups when they do exist.

However, one potential disadvantage of the Friedman Test is its complexity. It can be difficult to set up and interpret, especially for those who are not familiar with non-parametric statistics.

## Comparing the Friedman Test to Other Statistical Tests:

While the Friedman Test is an excellent tool for determining differences in means between multiple groups of ordinal data, it is not always the best option. Here, we will discuss two other statistical tests that can be used in similar situations.

### Repeated Measures ANOVA:

Repeated Measures ANOVA is a parametric test used to compare means between three or more groups. It requires that the data be normally distributed and that a phenomenon known as sphericity be met.

Sphericity assumes that the variances of the differences between all pairs of groups are equal. As such, it is often used when the data has a normal distribution and when the same subjects are used in each group.

### Kruskal-Wallis Test:

The Kruskal-Wallis Test is a non-parametric test used to compare the means of three or more independent groups of ordinal data. It is similar to the Friedman Test, but it is used when the subjects in each group are different.

The Kruskal-Wallis Test is more flexible than the Friedman Test in this regard, but it is not able to compare the same subjects in multiple groups.

### Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test:

The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test is a non-parametric test used to compare the means between two paired groups of ordinal data.

While it is not specifically designed for comparing means between multiple groups, it can be useful in situations where repeated measures cannot be used.

### Conclusion:

In conclusion, the Friedman Test is a powerful statistical tool that can be used to compare multiple groups of ordinal data.

While it is robust and flexible, it is important to check that its assumptions are met and to be aware of its complexity before using it. Additionally, there are other statistical tests, such as Repeated Measures ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test, that can be used for similar purposes depending on the nature of the data being analyzed.

By understanding these tests and their applications, researchers and analysts can make informed decisions about their data and draw meaningful conclusions.

## Conclusion:

In this article, we have discussed the Friedman Test and how to perform it in Python, using an example study of patient reaction times on different drugs.

We have also compared the Friedman Test to other statistical tests, such as Repeated Measures ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test. In this section, we will summarize the article and discuss the implications for future research.

### Summary of the Article:

The article began with an introduction to the purpose of the article and the example study of patient reaction times on different drugs. We then explained the process of performing the Friedman Test in Python, starting with entering the data and performing the test, and interpreting the results.

We also discussed the assumptions of the Friedman Test and its advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we compared the Friedman Test to other statistical tests, including Repeated Measures ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test.

### Implications for Future Research:

The Friedman Test is an incredibly powerful tool for researchers and analysts seeking to compare multiple groups of data. Its non-parametric nature makes it ideal for ordinal data, such as rankings or ratings, which are commonly encountered in the social sciences and medical research.

One area where the Friedman Test has particular application is in pharmacological research and development, where it can be used to compare the efficacy of different drugs in clinical trials. However, it is important to be aware of the limitations of the Friedman Test, including its complexity and the assumptions that must be met before using it.

Moreover, as we have seen, there are other statistical tests, such as Repeated Measures ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test, that can be used depending on the nature of the data being analyzed. Thus, researchers and analysts must be well-versed in the various statistical tests available and choose the appropriate one for their specific research question.

In conclusion, while the Friedman Test is an important statistical tool for analyzing data in multiple groups, it is important to understand its assumptions and limitations and to explore other statistical tests when appropriate. With a clear understanding of the available options, researchers and analysts can draw appropriate conclusions from their data and contribute to the development of better drugs, treatments, and interventions for patients.

In conclusion, this article has focused on understanding the Friedman Test and compared it to other statistical tests, such as Repeated Measures ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test. The Friedman Test is an essential tool for researchers and analysts who seek to compare multiple groups of ordinal data.

Its non-parametric nature makes it well-suited for medical research and other areas where the data is not normally distributed. The article has demonstrated the importance of understanding the assumptions, strengths, and limitations of the Friedman Test, particularly in pharmacological research and development.

The takeaways from this article are the importance of choosing the appropriate statistical test for a specific research question and the need for researchers to be well-informed about the available options. By understanding these tests, researchers and analysts can make informed decisions about their data and draw meaningful conclusions that contribute to the development of better drugs, treatments, and interventions for patients.