## Introduction to SQL Standard Functions

Structured Query Language (SQL) is a programming language used to communicate with databases. The language has many functions built-in to simplify database manipulation tasks.

SQL functions are a predefined set of codes that allow you to manipulate data to produce a specific result. This article will provide an overview of the most common SQL functions, with a focus on the ROUND() function.

## Examples of Common SQL Functions

There are many SQL functions available, but some are more commonly used than others. Here are three examples of common SQL functions:

1.

SUBSTRING() – This function is used to extract a substring from a string. It takes three arguments: the string, the starting position, and the length of the substring.

2. MAX() – This function returns the maximum value in a given column.

3. MIN() – This function returns the minimum value in a given column.

## Understanding the SQL ROUND() Function

The ROUND() function in SQL is used to round a number to a specified precision. It takes two arguments: the number you want to round, and the number of decimal places to which you want to round it.

For example, if you want to round 3.14159 to two decimal places, you would use the ROUND() function in the following way:

ROUND(3.14159,2)

This would return the value 3.14, rounded to two decimal places.

## Example Queries Using the ROUND() Function

Here are some example queries that use the ROUND() function:

1. SELECT ROUND(3.14159, 2);

Output: 3.14

2.

SELECT ROUND(3.14159);

Output: 3

3. SELECT ROUND(3.1111, 2);

Output: 3.11

4.

SELECT ROUND(3.555, 0);

Output: 4

5. SELECT ROUND(3.1234, 3);

Output: 3.123

## Precision and Decimal Digits

The precision of a value refers to the number of significant digits in the value. The decimal digits refer to the number of digits after the decimal point.

When using the ROUND() function, it is essential to know the precision and decimal digits of the value you are rounding. If the precision is high, rounding to a lower decimal digit can cause the value to change.

For example, if you want to round 3.1415 to three decimal places, the output should be 3.142, not 3.14, as rounding to two decimal places would suggest.

## Conclusion

SQL is a powerful tool for manipulating data in relational databases. The ROUND() function is just one of many functions provided in SQL to make this process easier.

This article has provided an overview of the ROUND() function, and how it can be used to round a number to a specific precision. By understanding the ROUND() function’s syntax and how to use it effectively, you can make more precise and accurate calculations on your data.

## Using SQL ROUND() Function in Different Databases

Structured Query Language (SQL) has become the standard for accessing and manipulating data in relational databases. Different database management systems, such as PostgreSQL, MySQL, Oracle, and SQL Server, have their own implementations of the ROUND() function, with varying rules for rounding fractions.

One of the most common methods for rounding fractions is the “round half to even” method, also known as “banker’s rounding,” which rounds numbers to the nearest even number. However, some database management systems use other methods.

For example, SQL Server always rounds .5 up, while Oracle uses a “round half away from zero” method that rounds .5 away from zero.

## Example Queries Demonstrating Differences in Rounding Algorithms

Let’s compare how different database management systems round values using the ROUND() function. Here are some example queries:

1.

## PostgreSQL:

SELECT ROUND(2.5);

Output: 2

SELECT ROUND(1.5);

Output: 2

2. MySQL:

SELECT ROUND(2.5);

Output: 3

SELECT ROUND(1.5);

Output: 2

3.

## Oracle:

SELECT ROUND(2.5);

Output: 3

SELECT ROUND(1.5);

Output: 2

4. SQL Server:

SELECT ROUND(2.5);

Output: 3

SELECT ROUND(1.5);

Output: 2

As you can see, different database management systems apply different rounding rules.

This can cause inconsistencies in results when working with data across different database platforms.

## Using SQL ROUND() with Negative Precision

The ROUND() function can also be used with a negative precision parameter to round numbers to the nearest multiple of 10, 100, or even 1000. When the precision parameter is negative, the number is rounded to the left of the decimal point.

For example, if you have a value of 12345 and you want to round it to the nearest multiple of 100, you can use the ROUND() function with a -2 precision parameter:

SELECT ROUND(12345, -2);

Output: 12300

Note that when the precision parameter is negative, the actual value of the parameter determines the multiple to which the number is rounded. Therefore, a precision parameter of -1 rounds numbers to the nearest multiple of 10, while a precision parameter of -3 rounds numbers to the nearest multiple of 1000.

## Example Queries Demonstrating the Rounding of Values

Let’s take a look at some example queries using negative precision with the ROUND() function:

1. Rounding to the nearest multiple of 10:

SELECT ROUND(123456, -1);

Output: 123460

SELECT ROUND(-123456, -1);

Output: -123460

2.

## Rounding to the nearest multiple of 100:

SELECT ROUND(123456, -2);

Output: 123500

SELECT ROUND(-123456, -2);

Output: -123500

3. Rounding to the nearest multiple of 1000:

SELECT ROUND(123456, -3);

Output: 123000

SELECT ROUND(-123456, -3);

Output: -123000

In conclusion, the ROUND() function in SQL provides a simple way to round numbers to a specified precision, but its implementation varies across different database management systems.

Negative precision can be used to round numbers to the nearest multiple of 10, 100, or 1000, depending on the value of the precision parameter. Understanding the nuances of the ROUND() function in SQL can help you to make more precise calculations with your data.

## Using ROUND() in WHERE

The WHERE clause in an SQL query provides a way to filter results based on a specific condition. You can also use the ROUND() function in the WHERE clause to filter data by decimal places.

Let’s take a look at how to use the ROUND() function in the WHERE clause of an SQL query. Suppose you have a database of products with prices ranging from 0.99 to 999.99.

You want to find all products that have a price ending in .99. To accomplish this, you can use the ROUND() function to calculate the decimal part of the price and filter by its value.

## Example Query Showing How to Calculate the Decimal Part of a Number Using ROUND()

Here is a sample query to find all products with a price ending in .99:

SELECT *

## FROM products

WHERE ROUND(price – FLOOR(price), 2) = 0.99;

In this query, we subtract the integer part of the price (found by using the FLOOR() function) from the price to get the decimal. We then use the ROUND() function to round this decimal to 2 decimal places.

Finally, we filter the results to include only those products whose decimal part equals 0.99. Note that the ROUND() function is not available in all database management systems.

For example, in MySQL, you would use the FORMAT() function instead to accomplish the same task:

SELECT *

## FROM products

WHERE FORMAT(price – FLOOR(price), 2) = ‘.99’;

## Recap of the ROUND() Function and Its Usage in SQL

In summary, the ROUND() function in SQL allows you to round a number to a specified precision. You can use the ROUND() function to filter data in the WHERE clause of a query based on decimal places.

This provides a powerful way to manipulate and filter data in your database.

## Recommendation of Additional Resources for Learning SQL Functions

To learn more about standard SQL functions and how they can be used, there are many resources available online. One great resource is the SQL cheat sheet, which provides a quick reference guide for all the standard SQL functions, including the ROUND() function.

Additionally, many online learning platforms offer courses on SQL and database management. Udemy, Codecademy, and Coursera are all great resources for learning SQL functions and other basic programming concepts.

In conclusion, the ROUND() function in SQL provides a simple way to manipulate and filter data based on decimal places. By using the ROUND() function in the WHERE clause, you can filter results based on specific criteria.

With a solid understanding of SQL functions and their applications, you can become more proficient in database management and data manipulation. In this article, we have explored the uses and applications of the ROUND() function in SQL.

This function allows you to round numbers to a specific precision, and can be used in a variety of ways to manipulate and filter data. We have discussed how different database management systems implement the ROUND() function, and how to use it with negative precision.

Additionally, we have explored how to use the ROUND() function in the WHERE clause of an SQL query to filter results based on decimal places. By understanding the nuances of the ROUND() function, you can become more proficient in database management and data manipulation.

With this knowledge, you can make more precise calculations on your data and achieve greater results in your projects.