Adventures in Machine Learning

Python Fundamentals: A Beginner’s Guide to Learning Python

Python Basics: Learning the Fundamentals

Python, one of the most widely-used programming languages in the world, boasts its simplicity and ease-of-use. Whether you’re new to programming or already an experienced software engineer, Python offers a great way to learn or further develop your skills.

The language emphasizes readability and simplicity, making it perfect for those who want to learn to code without getting bogged down in technical jargon and complexity. In this article, we’ll explore the basics of Python, including loops, control flow, data types, operators, lists, strings, input-output, and built-in functions.

By the end, you should have a good understanding of these fundamental concepts and be ready to start using Python in your own projects.

Loops

A loop in programming is a control structure that allows you to execute a block of code repeatedly. Python has two types of loops: for loops and while loops.

A for loop in Python iterates over a sequence, such as a list or a string, while a while loop repeats a block of code until a specific condition is met. For example, let’s say we have a list of numbers and we want to print out each number in the list:

“`

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

for number in numbers:

print(number)

“`

This code will iterate through the list, printing out each integer from 1 to 5.

Control Flow

Control flow in Python refers to the order in which the code is executed. Python has a number of control flow statements, including conditional statements and loops.

The if statement is used in Python for conditional statements. The code block under the if statement is executed if the condition specified in the if statement is true.

For example:

“`

x = 5

if x > 0:

print(“x is positive”)

“`

Here, the message “x is positive” will be printed because the statement “x > 0” is true.

Data Types

Python supports several data types, including integers, floating-point numbers, strings, lists, and tuples. Each data type has its own properties and methods.

Integers are whole numbers with no decimal point. They can be positive or negative.

Floating-point numbers are numbers with decimal points. They can also be positive or negative.

Strings are a sequence of characters, which can include letters, numbers, and symbols.

Lists are a collection of elements, which can be any data type. They are ordered and mutable, meaning that you can add, remove, and change elements within the list.

Tuples are similar to lists, but they are immutable, meaning that once defined, their elements cannot be changed.

Operators

Operators in Python are used to perform various operations on data types. Python supports several operators, including arithmetic, comparison, and logical operators.

Arithmetic operators include addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), division (/), and modulus (%). Comparison operators include less than (<), greater than (>), equals to (==), not equals to (!=), less than or equal to (<=), and greater than or equal to (>=).

Logical operators include and, or, and not.

Lists

As mentioned earlier, lists are a collection of elements. They can be created using square brackets and elements separated by commas.

For example:

“`

fruits = [“apple”, “banana”, “cherry”]

“`

To access an element in a list, you can use its index. Indexing in Python starts from 0.

For example:

“`

print(fruits[0])

“`

This code will print “apple”, as “apple” is the first element in the list.

Strings

Strings in Python are a sequence of characters enclosed in quotes. They can be created using single quotes (‘…’) or double quotes (“…”).

For example:

“`

name = “John”

“`

Strings are immutable, meaning that their values cannot be changed once defined. However, you can create a new string by concatenating two strings.

For example:

“`

greeting = “Hello, ” + name

print(greeting)

“`

This code will print “Hello, John”.

Input-Output

In Python, you can use the input() function to prompt the user for input. The input() function returns a string.

For example:

“`

name = input(“What’s your name? “)

print(“Hello, ” + name)

“`

This code will prompt the user for their name and then print a message including their name.

Built-In Functions

Python has a number of built-in functions that allow you to perform common operations on data types. For example, the len() function returns the length of a string or the number of elements in a list.

The print() function is used to print messages to the console.

Conclusion

Python is a great choice for those who want to learn to code or further develop their skills. Its simplicity and emphasis on readability make it easy to understand and use.

In this article, we explored some of the basic concepts of Python, including loops, control flow, data types, operators, lists, strings, input-output, and built-in functions. With this foundation, you should be ready to start using Python in your own projects and continue to learn and improve your skills.

Exercise Instructions: A Detailed Guide to Python Programs

Programming is a language that allows us to write directions for a computer in its own language, thereby enabling the computer to execute a specific set of tasks. In Python, we can accomplish a wide range of tasks with just a few lines of code.

In this article, we will provide detailed instructions on how to write 15 Python programs, each focusing on different concepts of the language. Program 1: Calculate Multiplication and Sum of Two Numbers

In Program 1, we are tasked with creating a program that calculates the product and sum of two integers.

The program should prompt the user to enter two numbers, read the numbers as integers, calculate their product and sum, and print out the results. To accomplish this task, we can follow these steps:

1.

Use the input() function to prompt the user to enter the two numbers. 2.

Convert the input string into integers using the int() function. 3.

Calculate the product and sum of the two integers. 4.

Use the print() function to display the result to the user. Program 2: Print Sum of Current and Previous Number

Program 2 requires us to create a program that prints the sum of the current number and the previous number in a range of numbers.

The program should prompt the user to enter a specific range of numbers, read the values as integers, and print out the sum of the current and previous numbers. To accomplish this task, we can follow these steps:

1.

Use the input() function to prompt the user to enter the range of numbers. 2.

Convert the input string into integers using the int() function. 3.

Use a for loop to iterate over the range of numbers. 4.

At each iteration, print out the sum of the current number and the previous number. Program 3: Print Characters from String at Even Index

In Program 3, we are tasked with creating a program that prints the characters of a string at even indexes.

The program should prompt the user to enter a string, read the input string, and print out the characters at even indexes. To accomplish this task, we can follow these steps:

1.

Use the input() function to prompt the user to enter the string. 2.

Use a for loop to iterate over the string. 3.

Use an if statement to check if the current index is even. 4.

If the index is even, print out the character at that index. Program 4: Remove First n Characters from String

Program 4 requires us to create a program that removes the first n characters from a string.

The program should prompt the user to enter a string and a value of n, read the input string and n, remove the first n characters and print out the modified string. To accomplish this task, we can follow these steps:

1.

Use the input() function to prompt the user to enter the string and the value of n. 2.

Use the slicing operator [n:] to remove the first n characters from the string. 3.

Print the modified string using the print() function. Program 5: Check if First and Last Number of List are the Same

In Program 5, we are tasked with creating a program that checks if the first and last number of a list are the same.

The program should prompt the user to enter a list of integers, read the input list, and check if the first and last numbers are the same. To accomplish this task, we can follow these steps:

1.

Use the input() function to prompt the user to enter a list of integers. 2.

Use the slicing operator [::] to extract the first and last elements of the list. 3.

Check if the first and last elements are equal using an if statement. 4.

Print out a message indicating whether or not the first and last elements are the same. Program 6: Display Numbers Divisible by 5 from List

Program 6 requires us to create a program that displays numbers divisible by 5 from a list of numbers.

The program should prompt the user to enter a list of numbers, read the input list, and print out the numbers that are divisible by 5. To accomplish this task, we can follow these steps:

1.

Use the input() function to prompt the user to enter a list of numbers. 2.

Use a for loop to iterate over the list. 3.

Use an if statement to check if the current number is divisible by 5. 4.

If the number is divisible by 5, print it out using the print() function. Program 7: Return the Count of a Given Substring from a String

In Program 7, we are tasked with creating a program that counts the number of occurrences of a substring in a string.

The program should prompt the user to enter a string and a substring, read the input string and substring, count the number of occurrences of the substring, and print out the count. To accomplish this task, we can follow these steps:

1.

Use the input() function to prompt the user to enter the string and the substring. 2.

Use the count() function to count the number of occurrences of the substring in the string. 3.

Print out the count using the print() function. Program 8: Print Certain Number Pattern

Program 8 requires us to create a program that prints out a certain number pattern.

The pattern should be as follows:

“`

1

1 2

1 2 3

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 5

“`

To accomplish this task, we can follow these steps:

1. Use a nested for loop to iterate over the rows and columns.

2. Print out the numbers using the print() function.

3. Use the end=” ” parameter in the print() function to separate the numbers with a space instead of a new line.

Program 9: Check Palindrome Number

In Program 9, we are tasked with creating a program that checks whether a number is a palindrome or not. The program should prompt the user to enter a number, read the input number, and check if the number is a palindrome or not.

To accomplish this task, we can follow these steps:

1. Use the input() function to prompt the user to enter a number.

2. Convert the input string into an integer using the int() function.

3. Convert the integer into a string using the str() function.

4. Reverse the string using string slicing [::-1].

5. Check if the reversed string is equal to the original string using an if statement.

6. Print out a message indicating whether or not the number is a palindrome.

Program 10: Create a New List using Specific Condition

Program 10 requires us to create a program that creates a new list from an existing list based on a specific condition. The program should prompt the user to enter a list of integers, read the input list, create a new list that contains only the even or odd numbers, and print out the new list.

To accomplish this task, we can follow these steps:

1. Use the input() function to prompt the user to enter a list of integers.

2. Use a for loop to iterate over the list.

3. Use an if statement to check if the current number is even or odd.

4. If the number is even or odd, append it to a new list.

5. Print out the new list using the print() function.

Program 11: Extract Digits from Integer in Reverse Order

In Program 11, we are tasked with creating a program that extracts the digits of an integer in reverse order. The program should prompt the user to enter an integer, read the input integer, and print out the digits of the integer in reverse order.

To accomplish this task, we can follow these steps:

1. Use the input() function to prompt the user to enter an integer.

2. Convert the input string into an integer using the int() function.

3. Convert the integer into a string using the str() function.

4. Reverse the string using string slicing [::-1].

5. Use a for loop to iterate over the reversed string and print out each digit.

Program 12: Calculate Income Tax

In Program 12, we are tasked with creating a program that calculates income tax based on a specific tax chart. The program should prompt the user to enter their income, read the input income, and calculate the income tax.

To accomplish this task, we can follow these steps:

1. Use the input() function to prompt the user to enter their income.

2. Convert the input string into an integer using the int() function.

3. Use an if-elif-else statement to determine the income tax based on the income tax chart.

4. Print out the income tax using the print() function.

Program 13: Print Multiplication Table from 1 to 10

Program 13 requires us to create a program that prints out the multiplication table from 1 to 10. The program should use nested loops to iterate

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