## Ranking NumPy Arrays: A Guide to Using argsort() and rankdata()

Numeric Python (NumPy) arrays are a core component of many scientific and engineering applications. A NumPy array is a grid of values, all of the same data type, that can be indexed and manipulated mathematically.

One common task is ranking the items in an array based on their values. Two commonly used methods for ranking NumPy arrays are `argsort()`

and `rankdata()`

.

### Method 1: Using argsort()

The `argsort()`

method returns the indices that would sort an array. For example, if we have an array of integers `[4, 3, 7, 1]`

, `argsort()`

would return `[3, 1, 0, 2]`

.

We can use these indices to create a ranking of the original array. To create a ranking, we can apply `argsort()`

, but instead of returning the sorted values as an array, it will return an array of indices from the original array.

We can use these indices to create a new array that has the same shape as the original, but with the values replaced by their corresponding rank. Example 1: Using argsort() to rank items in NumPy array

## Suppose we have an array of heights in inches:

`heights = np.array([70, 65, 73, 62, 68])`

We can rank these heights using `argsort()`

as follows:

```
ranks = np.argsort(heights)
ranked_heights = np.zeros_like(heights)
ranked_heights[ranks] = np.arange(len(heights))
```

We first use `argsort()`

to get the indices that would sort the `heights`

array.

We then create a new array of the same shape as the original `heights`

array, filled with zeros. Finally, we use the sorted indices to set the elements of the new array to their corresponding rank.

## The resulting `ranked_heights`

array would be:

`[2, 1, 4, 0, 3]`

### Method 2: Using rankdata()

The `rankdata()`

method is part of the SciPy library, which is a set of open-source software for scientific and technical computing. The `rankdata()`

method assigns ranks to data, handling ties in a variety of ways.

By default, `rankdata()`

assigns the average rank to each group of tied values. Example 2: Using rankdata() to rank items in NumPy array

## Suppose we have an array of test scores:

`scores = np.array([85, 70, 75, 80, 75])`

We can use `rankdata()`

to get the ranks of these scores as follows:

`ranks = rankdata(scores)`

## The resulting `ranks`

array would be:

`[4.5, 2, 3, 1, 3]`

Here, the two values of 75 are assigned the average rank of 3.

## Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Method

Both `argsort()`

and `rankdata()`

are useful for ranking NumPy arrays, but each method has its own advantages and disadvantages.

### Advantages of argsort()

- Simple to use and understand
- Useful for creating rankings based on a specific column or axis of a 2D array
- Does not require any additional libraries or dependencies

### Disadvantages of argsort()

- May have trouble properly handling ties
- Does not provide options for dealing with ties

### Advantages of rankdata()

- More flexible than
`argsort()`

in handling ties - Offers different methods for assigning ranks to tied values
- Useful for creating rankings based on more complex criteria

### Disadvantages of rankdata()

- Requires importing the SciPy library
- May be more difficult to understand and use compared to
`argsort()`

## Conclusion

In conclusion, `argsort()`

and `rankdata()`

are useful methods for ranking NumPy arrays. While `argsort()`

is simpler and may be sufficient for simple ranking tasks, `rankdata()`

offers more flexibility in handling ties and assigning ranks.

Consider the specific requirements of your task when deciding which method to use.

## Handling Ties: The Importance of Choosing the Right Method

When ranking NumPy arrays, it is important to consider how to handle ties – situations where two or more values have the same rank.

The default methods for handling ties in `argsort()`

and `rankdata()`

may not always be appropriate for every situation, especially when dealing with a large number of ties. In this article, we will discuss the default methods for handling ties in each method, and explore alternative methods for handling ties in `rankdata()`

.

### Default method for handling ties in argsort()

The default method for handling ties in `argsort()`

is the ordinal method. This method assigns the same rank to each tied value, with the next rank skipped.

For example, if we have an array of grades `[A, B, B, C]`

, `argsort()`

with the ordinal method would return `[0, 1, 2, 3]`

, meaning A has rank 0, B has rank 1 and 2, and C has rank 3. While this method is simple and easy to understand, it may not be appropriate for all situations.

In some cases, assigning the same rank to multiple values can be misleading or counterintuitive.

### Default method for handling ties in rankdata()

The default method for handling ties in `rankdata()`

is to assign average ranks to each group of tied values. This means that if we have an array of test scores `[85, 70, 75, 80, 75]`

, `rankdata()`

would return `[4.5, 2, 3, 1, 3]`

.

Here, the two values of 75 are assigned the average rank of 3. This method can be a good compromise between assigning a unique rank to each tied value and assigning the same rank to each group.

### Using the method argument to handle ties in rankdata()

In `rankdata()`

, we can also use the `method`

argument to specify how to handle ties. The possible values for the `method`

argument are:

`average`

: assigns the average rank to groups of tied values (default)`min`

: assigns the minimum rank to groups of tied values`max`

: assigns the maximum rank to groups of tied values`dense`

: like ‘min’, but the rank of the next unassigned value is the same as the rank of the last assigned value`ordinal`

: assigns ranks in the order of appearance in the original array

For example, if we use `rankdata()`

with the `method`

argument set to ‘min’ on our array of test scores `[85, 70, 75, 80, 75]`

, it would return `[4, 2, 3, 1, 3]`

.

Here, the two values of 75 are assigned the minimum rank of 3, and the next unassigned rank is 4. Choosing the right method for handling ties can depend on the data being analyzed and the specific requirements of the problem being solved.

Some methods may be more appropriate for certain situations than others. It is important to carefully consider the options and choose the method that best suits your needs.

## Additional Resources

For those interested in learning more about NumPy and its applications, there are a variety of resources available online. Some useful resources include:

- NumPy official documentation: This comprehensive guide covers all aspects of NumPy, including installation, usage, and advanced topics.
- NumPy tutorial on DataCamp: This interactive tutorial provides hands-on experience with NumPy and its applications.
- NumPy Tutorial on Tutorialspoint: This tutorial provides a good introduction to NumPy with plenty of examples.
- Stack Overflow: This popular website offers a wealth of information and help with NumPy and other programming languages.

By leveraging these resources and experimenting with different methods for handling ties, you can become more proficient in working with NumPy arrays and gain insight into the specific requirements of your data analysis task.

In conclusion, when ranking NumPy arrays, it is important to consider how to handle ties. While `argsort()`

uses the ordinal method to assign the same rank to each tied value, `rankdata()`

assigns average ranks by default.

However, the `method`

argument in `rankdata()`

allows for further customization, including assigning minimum or maximum ranks. Choosing the right method for handling ties can depend on the data being analyzed and the specific requirements of the problem being solved.

By understanding the options and experimenting with different methods, you can improve your proficiency in working with NumPy arrays and gain valuable insights into your data analysis tasks.