Adventures in Machine Learning

Unleash Your Creativity with a Markov Chain-Based Lyric Generator

Developing a Markov Chain-based Lyric Generator

Have you ever struggled to come up with creative lyrics for a song you’ve been working on? Or maybe you’re just looking for some inspiration and are tired of browsing through endless pages of existing lyrics.

Well, fret no more- with the help of a Markov Chain-based Lyric Generator, you can generate unique and original lyrics in no time.

Understanding Markov Chains

Before we dive into the specifics of the generator, let’s explore the backbone of this technology- Markov Chains. Simply put, a Markov Chain is a mathematical concept that allows us to predict the future based on the present.

In the context of language, it analyzes a series of words and their probability of occurring together in a given order. This probability is used to generate new text that is similar in structure to the original input.

Generating a Markov Model Dictionary

The next step in building our Lyric Generator is creating a Markov model dictionary. This dictionary will reference words and their corresponding frequencies in the input text, and then will use that information to generate new text.

The more input data available, the more accurate and diverse the generated texts will be.

Building a getNextCharacter() Method

The getNextCharacter() method is a crucial component in generating text that flows well. Essentially, this method takes in one character at a time and uses the Markov model dictionary to determine the next most probable character.

This creates a smooth and logical progression in the generated text, mimicking the patterns found in the original input.

Generating Text using the Markov Model

With the Markov model and getNextCharacter() method in place, it’s time to generate our own lyrics! By feeding the Markov model with a starting character or word, and then using the getNextCharacter() method, a new stream of text can be generated. Keep in mind that the more input data fed into the Markov model, the less repetitive and more creative the generated text will be.

Finding an API for Gathering Lyrics

In order to generate lyrics, we will need a large dataset of existing song lyrics. One option is to manually gather data from various websites, but that can be time-consuming and exhausting.

The better solution is to use an API (Application Programming Interface) that provides access to a large collection of lyrics. A quick internet search will bring up a few options available, such as Musixmatch or Genius.

Creating a Flask App for the Lyric Generator

Now that we’ve got the Markov Chain-based Lyric Generator up and running, it’s time to create a user-friendly interface. Flask, a micro web framework written in Python, is an excellent choice for this task.

Choosing Flask as the Web Framework

Flask is a popular and lightweight web framework that is easy to use and can be quickly set up. It is ideal for small to medium-sized projects, such as our Lyric Generator, and provides a variety of useful tools and libraries.

Setting up a Basic Form for User Input

Our Flask app will need a basic form where users can input a starting word or character for the generation process. The form can be created using HTML and CSS, and Flask will handle the backend of the form’s functionality.

Creating a Template for Displaying Results

After the user inputs their starting word or character, the generated lyrics will need to be displayed in a user-friendly manner. A template is essentially a pre-designed layout that can be filled with dynamic content, in this case, the generated lyrics.

Flask uses Jinja2 templates, which are easy to use and provide a lot of flexibility in designing web pages.

Writing a Route for the Results Page

Lastly, a route needs to be created for the results page. A route is simply a URL that the user can follow to access a specific page in the Flask app.

It will receive and process the input from the form, generate lyrics using the Markov model dictionary and getNextCharacter() method, and then pass the generated lyrics data to the template to be displayed.


In conclusion, a Markov Chain-based Lyric Generator can be a powerful tool for those looking for creative inspiration or a quick way to come up with original lyrics. With a bit of Python programming and Flask web development, anyone can create their own user-friendly Lyric Generator.

Give it a try and see what lyrics your creativity can generate!

Deploying the App to Heroku

Now that we have our Markov Chain-based Lyric Generator and Flask app up and running, it’s time to deploy it to the web so that anyone can access it from anywhere. There are many cloud-based platforms available that allow you to deploy and run apps on the web, but in this article, we’ll be using Heroku, a popular platform-as-a-service provider.

Signing up for a Heroku Account

The first step in deploying our Flask app to Heroku is to sign up for a Heroku account. Head over to the Heroku website ( and click on the “Sign up for free” button.

Follow the prompts, including verifying your email, to set up your account. After successfully signing up, you’ll be brought to the Heroku dashboard.

Installing Heroku CLI

To interact with your Heroku account using the command line interface (CLI), you’ll need to download and install the Heroku CLI. The CLI is a command-line tool that allows you to deploy, configure, and manage Heroku apps directly from your local environment.

You can download the Heroku CLI from the Heroku website by clicking on the “Download the CLI” button in the dashboard, or by using your system’s package manager.

Setting up the App for Deployment

Before deploying the app to Heroku, we need to ensure that it’s configured properly. First, make sure that all necessary dependencies are listed in the “requirements.txt” file.

This file specifies all the Python packages required for the app to function. Next, we need to set up a “Procfile.” The Procfile is a special file that tells Heroku how to start up our application.

In our case, we’ll be using gunicorn, a Python web server, to serve our app. Here’s what our Procfile might look like:


web: gunicorn app:app


This tells Heroku to run the “web” process using gunicorn, and to use the “app” object defined in our “” file.

Pushing the Code to Heroku

With the app properly configured, we’re ready to deploy it to Heroku. The first step is to initialize a new Git repository in the project’s root directory.

Then, we’ll add all necessary files to the repository using the “git add” command:


git init

git add . “`

Next, we’ll commit the changes using the “git commit” command:


git commit -m “initial commit”


Now, we’re ready to create a new Heroku app:


heroku create


This will create a new Heroku app and add a remote Git repository to our local Git configuration. Finally, we’ll push the code to Heroku using the “

git push heroku master” command:


git push heroku master


This will push our code to the Heroku remote Git repository, triggering a build and deployment of our application. Once the deployment is complete, we can open the app in our web browser by running the command:


heroku open


And there you have it- your very own Markov Chain-based Lyric Generator deployed to the web for anyone to use!

Conclusion and Next Steps

Developing and deploying a Markov Chain-based Lyric Generator is not only a fun side project but also a great way to practice and improve your programming skills. As we’ve seen, it requires a deep understanding of Markov Chains, Python programming, Flask web development, and deploying to a cloud-based platform like Heroku.

However, it’s also a great way to learn new technologies and experiment with different ideas. Side projects like this not only benefit you by honing your skills, but they can also be used to showcase your abilities to potential employers or clients.

Building and deploying a fully functioning web application demonstrates your ability to take an idea from conception to execution, which is a valuable skill in today’s tech industry. So, if you’re looking for more learning opportunities or just want to explore new ideas, consider starting your own side project.

Who knows- it could turn into something that changes the world!

In this article, we explored the process of developing and deploying a Markov Chain-based Lyric Generator using Python programming, Flask web development, and Heroku cloud-based platform. Through understanding Markov Chains, generating Markov model dictionaries, building a getNextCharacter() method for text generation, and deploying the app to Heroku, we learned about the importance of side projects in honing programming skills.

Developing side projects offers opportunities to experiment with different ideas, learn new technologies, and showcase abilities to potential employers or clients. Overall, this article emphasizes the importance of exploring new concepts and continuing to learn and grow in the ever-evolving tech industry.

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