Adventures in Machine Learning

Unleashing the Power of *Args and **Kwargs in Python Functions

Is there anything more frustrating than trying to write a function, only to be held back by trying to determine how many arguments you should expect? As a programmer, this is a problem you will likely encounter time and time again.

Well, there is good news: Python has the solution. The *args and **kwargs operators allow you to solve this common issue and make your code more flexible.

What are *args and **kwargs? Before we get into the specifics of *args and **kwargs, let’s first define them.

In Python, *args is short for “variable number of arguments,” and it is used when you do not know how many arguments a function may need. **kwargs, on the other hand, stands for “variable number of keyword arguments,” and it is used when you do not know how many keyword arguments a function may need.

The * operator is what makes *args and **kwargs work. When used with *args, it turns the arguments passed into a function into a tuple.

With **kwargs, it turns the keyword arguments into a dictionary. These operators give us a lot of flexibility, and in this article, we will explore some of the key uses.

Using *args

One of the most common use cases for *args is when you are unsure how many arguments a function may need. This could be because you want to provide the user with a lot of flexibility, or it could be because the function needs to work with a variable amount of input.

Either way, *args can help. The first step in using *args is to pack the positional arguments into a tuple or list.

You can do this simply by placing an asterisk (*) before the variable name representing *args. Here is an example:


def example_function(*args):

for arg in args:


example_function(1, 2, 3)


In this example, the function is defined with a parameter named *args, which is preceded by an asterisk (*).

This means that any arguments passed to the function are collected into a tuple called args. When the function is called with the arguments 1, 2, and 3, the for loop iterates through the tuple and prints each value, resulting in the output:






Unpacking a Tuple with *

Let’s say you wanted to pass a list or tuple to your function using *args. How do you do this?

You can simply pass the list or tuple and add an asterisk (*) before the variable name representing *args to unpack the list. Let’s look at the previous example but with a tuple:


my_tuple = (1, 2, 3)



In this case, we define a tuple called my_tuple and then pass it to the function using *my_tuple.

The result is the same as when we passed the individual integers. You can also use this technique to unpack any iterable data type, such as a generator.

Let’s modify our previous example to showcase this:


def iterable_function(*args):

for arg in args:


iterable = (i for i in range(5))



In this case, we created a generator which contains the numbers 0 to 4 as the iterable. We pass the generator using *iterable as the argument to the function iterable_function.


*args and **kwargs allow us to write more flexible code by allowing functions to work with an arbitary number of arguments, or keyword arguments, respectively. The * operator makes these operators versatile and an incredible asset for programmers.

Whether you only need to work with a handful of arguments or an uncertain amount, *args and **kwargs make the process simple and intuitive. Combining *args and **kwargs

Up until now, we have explored *args and **kwargs as separate entities.

However, one of the greatest strengths of these operators is their ability to work together. Combining *args and **kwargs can lead to some incredibly powerful and versatile functions.

To start, let’s look at an example of using *args and **kwargs together:


def combination_function(*args, **kwargs):

for arg in args:


for key, value in kwargs.items():

print(f”{key} is set to {value}”)

combination_function(1, 2, 3, name=”John”, age=27)


In this example, we have defined a new function called combination_function, which has both *args and **kwargs as parameters. We can call this function with both positional arguments, such as 1, 2, and 3, as well as keyword arguments, such as name=”John” and age=27.

The result is that all of the arguments are printed out in order. Packing keyword arguments into a dictionary with **

When working with **kwargs, the arguments are passed in as key-value pairs, much like a Python dictionary.

This means that we can use ** to pack keyword arguments into a dictionary. Here’s an example:


def dictionary_function(**kwargs):


dictionary_function(name=”John”, age=27)


In this example, we have defined a function called dictionary_function that includes **kwargs as a parameter.

When we call the function with the keyword arguments name=”John” and age=27, the output is {‘name’: ‘John’, ‘age’: 27}, which is a dictionary containing the key-value pairs of the arguments. This can be incredibly useful when working with a large number of keyword arguments.

Unpacking **kwargs with *

Similarly, we can use * to unpack **kwargs. This will provide us with the keys or values of the dictionary.

Here’s an example:


def unpacking_function(name, age):

print(f”{name} is {age} years old”)

person_data = {“name”: “John”, “age”: 27}



In this example, we define a dictionary called person_data with the key-value pairs “name”: “John” and “age”: 27. We then pass the dictionary to our function using **person_data.

The result is that the values “John” and 27 are unpacked and assigned to the corresponding parameters in the function definition.


In conclusion, *args and **kwargs are incredibly useful tools that can help you write more dynamic and flexible Python code. By allowing functions to work with a variable number of arguments and keyword arguments, respectively, these operators give you greater control over how your functions operate.

Additionally, using * and ** can help you easily pack and unpack arguments, making your code both simpler and easier to read. Overall, *args and **kwargs are powerful tools that can greatly aid in the creation of easy-to-use and flexible functions.

As a Python developer, it’s important to understand how these operators work and when to use them to achieve your desired outcome. In conclusion, *args and **kwargs are invaluable tools for Python developers, providing greater flexibility and ease of use in function definitions.

These operators allow for dynamic function creation that can work with variable numbers of arguments and keyword arguments. If you’re a Python developer, mastering *args and **kwargs can help you create more impactful code with a greater level of control, while also making your code simpler and easier to read.

By using * and ** to pack and unpack arguments, you can further streamline your code, making it even more versatile and efficient. Remember to leverage *args and **kwargs in your own code for more control and flexibility over your Python functions.

Popular Posts