Structured Query Language (SQL) is a versatile programming language that is widely used to manage and maintain databases. One of the most useful functions in SQL Server is the NTILE() function.

NTILE() is a handy function that can be used to divide a group of rows into smaller groups, called buckets. NTILE() assigns a bucket number to each row based on the order of the rows when data is sorted.

This article will cover the definition, syntax, and behavior of the NTILE() function, and provide examples to show you how to use it in SQL Server.

## Definition of NTILE() function

The NTILE() function is a window function that is used to divide a set of rows into buckets or groups. The function assigns a bucket number to each row based on the total number of rows in the set and the number of buckets specified.

NTILE() distributes the rows as evenly as possible among the buckets, so each bucket has almost the same number of rows. The NTILE() function is particularly useful when you want to perform analyses on data that are grouped into smaller subsets.

## Syntax of NTILE() function

The syntax of the NTILE() function is as follows:

### NTILE(n) OVER (

[PARTITION BY partition_expression, … ]

ORDER BY sort_expression [ASC | DESC], …

)

The NTILE() function takes a single argument, n, which specifies the number of buckets or groups you want to divide your data into. The PARTITION BY clause is optional and is used to partition the data into smaller subsets.

The ORDER BY clause is mandatory and is used to sort the data before dividing it into buckets. The sort_expression can be a column name or an expression that evaluates to a column name.

## Behavior of NTILE() function when the number of rows is not divisible by the buckets

When you use NTILE() to divide a set of rows into buckets, the function tries to distribute the rows as evenly as possible among the buckets. However, when the number of rows is not evenly divisible by the number of buckets specified, NTILE() creates some uneven groups.

The extra rows are placed in the first buckets, so the total number of rows in each bucket is as even as possible.

## Behavior of NTILE() function when the total of rows is divisible by the buckets

When the total number of rows is evenly divisible by the number of buckets specified, NTILE() creates even groups. There will be an equal number of rows in each group.

The NTILE() function assigns each row a bucket number depending on the order of the rows after sorting.

## SQL Server NTILE() function illustration

Example of using NTILE() function to divide 10 rows into three groups:

For this example, well use a table called Employees with 10 rows. Suppose we want to divide these rows into three groups based on the order of their salaries, lowest to highest.

First, well write the SQL query to partition the data and sort it:

```
SELECT *, NTILE(3) OVER (ORDER BY Salary) AS NtileGroup
FROM Employees
```

### The query returns the following result:

EmployeeID | EmpName | Salary | NtileGroup |
---|---|---|---|

3 | John | 25000 | 1 |

9 | Michele | 32000 | 1 |

8 | Tony | 35000 | 2 |

10 | Sarah | 35000 | 2 |

2 | Bill | 40000 | 2 |

4 | Tom | 40000 | 3 |

6 | Lisa | 45000 | 3 |

7 | Rachel | 50000 | 3 |

1 | Alex | 70000 | 3 |

5 | Tim | 80000 | 3 |

In the example above, weve divided the 10 rows into three groups based on their salaries. The NTILE() function has assigned a bucket number (1, 2, or 3) to each row.

The rows are distributed as evenly as possible across the buckets so that each bucket has approximately the same number of rows.

Example of using NTILE() function to divide rows into five groups:

For this example, well use a table called Books with 17 rows.

Suppose we want to divide these rows into five groups based on the order of their prices, lowest to highest. First, well write the SQL query to partition the data and sort it:

```
SELECT Title, Price, NTILE(5) OVER (ORDER BY Price) AS NtileGroup
FROM Books
```

### The query returns the following result:

Title | Price | NtileGroup |
---|---|---|

Book 1 | 10 | 1 |

Book 2 | 12 | 1 |

Book 3 | 14 | 1 |

Book 4 | 15 | 2 |

Book 5 | 20 | 2 |

Book 6 | 24 | 3 |

Book 7 | 29 | 3 |

Book 8 | 30 | 3 |

Book 9 | 35 | 4 |

Book 10 | 42 | 4 |

Book 11 | 50 | 4 |

Book 12 | 60 | 5 |

Book 13 | 65 | 5 |

Book 14 | 70 | 5 |

Book 15 | 80 | 5 |

Book 16 | 95 | 5 |

Book 17 | 100 | 5 |

In this example, weve divided the 17 rows into five groups based on their prices. The NTILE() function has assigned a bucket number (1-5) to each row.

Again, the rows are distributed as evenly as possible across the buckets so that each bucket has almost the same number of rows.

## Conclusion

The NTILE() function is a useful tool that can help you to perform analyses on your data more easily. The function assigns a bucket number to each row based on the number of groups specified, and distributes the rows among the groups as evenly as possible.

We hope this article has provided you a clear understanding of the NTILE() function and its syntax and behavior, and helps you apply this function to your SQL Server projects.In the previous section, we discussed the definition, syntax, and behavior of the NTILE() function in SQL Server. In this section, we will explore some examples of how the NTILE() function can be used in practical scenarios to analyze data.

## Example of creating a view to demonstrate the NTILE() function

Let’s consider an example of using NTILE() function to analyze the sales of a company. Suppose we want to calculate the net sales of each product and divide them into four groups based on the sales value.

We can create a view that calculates the net sales for each product and assigns the appropriate bucket number using the NTILE() function. Here’s an example of the SQL query:

```
CREATE VIEW Products_Sales_View AS
SELECT ProductID, SUM(UnitPrice*Quantity) AS NetSales,
NTILE(4) OVER (ORDER BY SUM(UnitPrice*Quantity) DESC) AS NetSalesBucket
FROM OrderDetails
GROUP BY ProductID
```

In the example above, we’ve created a view called Products_Sales_View that uses the NTILE() function to calculate the net sales of each product and assigns each product to a bucket based on the sales value. This view can be used to analyze the sales performance of each product by their assigned bucket number.

## Example of using NTILE() function over a query result set

Let’s consider another example of using the NTILE() function to analyze the sales data of a company. Suppose we want to calculate the total sales of each customer and divide them into three groups based on the sales value.

We can use a SQL query to calculate the total sales of each customer and use the NTILE() function to assign each customer to a bucket based on the sales value. Here’s an example of the query:

```
SELECT CustomerID, SUM(UnitPrice*Quantity) AS TotalSales,
NTILE(3) OVER (ORDER BY SUM(UnitPrice*Quantity) DESC) AS TotalSalesBucket
FROM Orders
JOIN OrderDetails ON Orders.OrderID = OrderDetails.OrderID
GROUP BY CustomerID
```

In this example, we’ve used the NTILE() function to calculate the total sales of each customer and assign the customers to buckets based on their sales value. This query can be used to analyze the sales performance of each customer in terms of their assigned bucket number.

## Example of using NTILE() function over partitions

Let’s consider an example of using the NTILE() function over partitions. Suppose we want to rank the products based on their net sales in each region of a company.

We can use a SQL query to calculate the net sales of each product in each region and use the NTILE() function to assign each product to a bucket based on the sales value within each region. Here’s an example of the query:

```
SELECT Region, ProductID, NetSales,
NTILE(4) OVER (PARTITION BY Region ORDER BY NetSales DESC) AS NetSalesBucket
FROM (
SELECT Orders.ShipRegion AS Region, OrderDetails.ProductID,
SUM(UnitPrice*Quantity) AS NetSales
FROM Orders
JOIN OrderDetails ON Orders.OrderID = OrderDetails.OrderID
GROUP BY ShipRegion, ProductID
) AS NetSalesByRegion
```

In this example, we’ve used the NTILE() function over partitions to rank the products based on their net sales in each region of the company. The result is a table with each product assigned to a bucket based on their net sales value within each region.

This query can be used to analyze the sales performance of each product in each region by their assigned bucket number.

## Conclusion

In this section, we explored some practical examples of using the NTILE() function to analyze data in SQL Server. We learned how to create a view to demonstrate the NTILE() function and how to use the function over query results and partitions.

The NTILE() function is a powerful tool that allows us to group data into buckets based on specific criteria, providing us with a useful method of analyzing our data. In conclusion, the NTILE() function in SQL Server is an essential tool for data analysis.

It allows us to divide a set of data into smaller groups, called buckets, based on specific criteria. The function can be used over query results and partitions, and we can use it to create views to analyze data.

With its clear definition, syntax, and behavior, experts can use it to calculate important metrics, including total sales, net sales, and product performance. Implementing the NTILE() function can lead to better insights into your data, and it’s an excellent way to group and analyze data.

By using sample queries and scenarios, we’ve demonstrated how this flexible and powerful SQL Server tool can help us analyze and understand complex data more effectively.