Adventures in Machine Learning

Unlocking the Power of Color Spaces and Simple Segmentation for Image Analysis

Color spaces are an essential element of image analysis. They offer powerful and simple methods for understanding an image’s characteristics and making comparisons between different images.

This article will provide an overview of color spaces, discussing their importance, different types, and how to use them. We will also delve into simple segmentation, using OpenCV and Python, and the benefits they bring to image analysis.

What Are Color Spaces? The most common color space used in image analysis is the RGB color space, which comprises red, green, and blue components.

It is a useful tool for visualizing images, but there are other color spaces available that offer greater benefits depending on the intent of the analysis. For example, the CMYK color space is useful in print media, while the HED, HSV, and HSL color spaces are commonly employed in digital image analysis.

The HED color space separates color and saturation information from image intensity, making it an excellent option for segmenting tissue slides’ images. Similarly, the HSV and HSL color spaces offer a separate representation of hue, saturation, and intensity, which is ideal for isolating objects in an image.

Discrete Structures in Color Spaces

Humans perceive an infinite range of colors; however, color spaces represent them discretely. This is achieved by a standardization process where the range of each component is determined and mapped to a limited number of values.

The aim is to ensure that color representations are consistent between different systems, even though various devices may use different ranges of values for individual components.


Segmentation is the process of dividing an image into distinct regions or segments, based on a set of predefined criteria. It is essential in image analysis for identifying and separating different structures and regions within an image.


Segmentation with OpenCV and Python

OpenCV is an open-source computer vision library that provides an extensive collection of algorithms and functions for image analysis and processing. Python is a popular programming language that is easy to learn and simple to use.

Together, OpenCV and Python provide an excellent platform for implementing several simple image segmentation algorithms. Let us explore some of these simple segmentation methods.

– Thresholding

Thresholding works by converting a grayscale image into a binary image, where pixel values are either 0 or 1. The decision to classify a pixel value as 0 or 1 is based on the threshold value set.

For example, if the threshold is set at 127, pixels with values less than 127 are converted to 0, while pixels greater than 127 are converted to 1. This is an excellent method for isolating objects with distinct colors.

– Image Blurring

Image blurring smooths out the edges in an image, reducing noise and producing a cleaner image. It can be useful in simplifying complex images and removing unwanted backgrounds or artifacts.

– Edge Detection

Edge detection is a method for finding the boundaries between different regions in an image. It can be achieved by a variety of methods, such as Sobel, Canny, and Laplacian.

The resulting image shows where the edges in the image are, making it easier to segment the different regions.


In conclusion, color spaces provide powerful and simple methods for image analysis, and there are many different types to choose from. OpenCV and Python provide excellent tools for implementing simple image segmentation algorithms such as thresholding, edge detection, and image blurring.

As image analysis becomes increasingly important in various fields, including medicine, environmental science, and computer vision, understanding color spaces and segmentation methods is crucial for effective and accurate analysis. Simple

Segmentation Using Color Spaces

In this section, we will explore how to perform simple segmentation using OpenCV and different color spaces.

We will use a dataset of underwater images containing a variety of marine life forms, including clownfish, as our candidate for segmentation. We will also discuss the required Python packages and introduce OpenCV color space conversions and available flags.

Required Python Packages

To follow along with this tutorial, we will require a few Python packages. These include NumPy, Matplotlib, and OpenCV.

NumPy provides support for multidimensional arrays and a collection of mathematical functions for array operations. Matplotlib is a plotting library for Python that you can use to create a variety of visualizations.

OpenCV is a library that offers computer vision tools, image, and video processing.

OpenCV Color Space Conversions and Available Flags

OpenCV provides a vast range of color spaces that you can use for color-based image processing. Some of the commonly used color spaces include RGB, BGR, HSL, HSV, and CMYK.

For example, the HSV color space performs better than RGB when it comes to identifying color ranges. OpenCV’s cv2.cvtColor() function converts an image from one color space to another.

Using flags, you can specify the color space to convert to and from. The available flags depend on the image’s channel depth, and there are different flags available for 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit images.

Loading and Examining an Image using OpenCV and Matplotlib

To load and examine the image, we will use OpenCV and Matplotlib. We will first load the image and display it using OpenCV’s imread() function.

We can then display the image using Matplotlib.

Fixing the BGR Default Image Format in OpenCV

In OpenCV, the default color format of an image is BGR, which can be confusing to users accustomed to RGB. Therefore, before proceeding with segmentation, we need to fix the image format to RGB.

We can achieve this by using cv2.cvtColor() function with the flag cv2.COLOR_BGR2RGB. The result will be a correctly formatted image in RGB that is ready for us to use for segmentation.

Comparison of Nemo in RGB and HSV Color Spaces using 3D Plots

We can use 3D plots to compare Nemo’s color in RGB and HSV color spaces. To do this, we will use Matplotlib’s mplot3d library, which can help us create 3D plots and rotations.

Visualizing Nemo in RGB Color Space

To visualize Nemo in RGB color space, we can plot the image as a 3D scatter plot. We first convert the image into a 3D array using the NumPy’s reshape() and moveaxis() functions.

Next, we normalize the RGB values and scale them to the range [0, 1]. Finally, we plot the 3D RGB values in a 3D scatter plot, with each pixel represented as a point in space.

We can then rotate the plot to get an idea of the distibution of the colors.


In conclusion, simple segmentation is a powerful tool in image analysis, and using different color spaces can help improve segmentation results. OpenCV provides support for various color spaces and conversions, and we can explore different color spaces using visualization tools like Matplotlib’s 3D plotting library.

With the right tools and techniques, we can achieve accurate and reliable segmentation results for many applications, particularly for underwater images of marine life, as we have seen with our example of Nemo the clownfish.

Visualizing Nemo in HSV Color Space

In this section, we will expand on our previous exploration of Nemo’s RGB color space and explore the HSV color space. We will discuss the HSV color space’s three channels: hue, saturation, and value and perform an RGB to HSV conversion using OpenCV.

We will then create a 3D plot of Nemo in HSV color space and interpret the results.

Explanation of HSV Color Space and its Three Channels

The HSV color space represents colors based on their hue, saturation, and value. The hue channel represents the color itself and is measured in degrees, ranging from 0 to 360 degree.

Saturation refers to the amount of color present in a pixel, and it ranges from 0 to 100, with 0 being white and 100 being pure color. The value channel measures the brightness of a color, with 0 being the darkest and 100 being the brightest.

Conversion of Nemo Image from RGB to HSV using OpenCV

To convert our Nemo image from RGB to HSV, we will use OpenCV’s cv2.cvtColor() function. We will set the conversion flag to cv2.COLOR_RGB2HSV.

This will convert our RGB image to an HSV image with three channels, hue, saturation, and value.

3D Plot of Nemo in HSV Color Space and its Interpretation

We can create another 3D plot of Nemo using his HSV values and interpreting the results. Using Matplotlib’s mplot3d library, we can plot Nemo in a three-dimensional space using the hue, saturation, and value channels.

The result will be a 3D scatter plot that represents Nemo’s colors in HSV space.

Picking Out a Range

Our next step is to pick a color range for Nemo segmentation. This is an essential step in the segmentation process as we need to select a color range that accurately captures the scheme of colors for Nemo.

We can use an online tool like W3Schools’ Color Picker to choose a range of colors that best represents Nemo.

Demonstration of Color Picking Using an Online Tool

To demonstrate how to pick a color range using an online tool, we will use W3Schools’ Color Picker. We will select a range of colors that best represents Nemo.

Once we have the range of colors, we can use them to create a mask that will isolate Nemo from the rest of the image. Application of the Chosen Range using cv2.inRange()

To create a mask using the selected color range, we will use OpenCV’s cv2.inRange() function.

The function takes the HSV image and the range of colors as inputs. The output is a binary mask that contains the selected values, making it easy to isolate Nemo from the rest of the image.

Imposition of the Mask on Nemo using cv2.bitwise_and()

After creating a mask, we can impose it on Nemo using cv2.bitwise_and() function. The bitwise_and() function takes the original image and the mask as inputs and outputs the image with only the selected colors left.

Imposing the mask on Nemo ensures that only Nemo’s colors will be visible. Addition of a White Color Range for


We will add a white color range to our mask for better segmentation, as Nemo’s white marking is an important characteristic.

We will create another mask using cv2.inRange() to capture white colors. We can then use cv2.bitwise_or() function to append the two masks together.

Combination of Orange and White Masks for Final


With the final masks in place, we can combine the orange and white masks using cv2.bitwise_or() function to create our full mask. We can then impose this mask on the original image using cv2.bitwise_and() function and output a segmented Nemo that is isolated from the rest of the image.


Segmentation using color spaces is an essential part of image processing, and employing various color spaces can help achieve better segmentation results. In this section, we explored the HSV color space and used 3D scatter plots to visualize Nemo’s colors in this space.

We also discussed the importance of choosing an accurate color range for segmentation and demonstrated how to use an online tool to select a range of colors. Finally, we created two masks and combined them to isolate Nemo from the rest of the image.

With these techniques, we can achieve accurate and reliable segmentation results for our underwater images of marine life. Does This

Segmentation Generalize to Nemo’s Relatives?

In this section, we will explore whether the simple segmentation technique works for Nemo’s relatives. We will introduce a dataset containing images of different types of clownfish, load and segment them using the function from earlier, and compare the results with the original Nemo’s Relatives Dataset

To test the generalization of our simple segmentation technique to other clownfish, we will use a dataset containing images of different types of clownfish.

The dataset includes images of three different types of clownfish, all belonging to the Amphiprion family. They are the Amphiprion Clarkii, Amphiprion Ocellaris, and Amphiprion Percula.

Loading and Segmenting all the Fish Using the Function from Earlier

To segment all the fish from the dataset, we can reuse the function we created earlier using OpenCV and Python. We will load each image from the dataset and segment each one using the same process as we did with Nemo.

This process includes converting the images to the HSV color space, selecting the appropriate color range, creating a mask, imposing the mask on the image, and outputting the segmented fish.

Visualization of All the Segmented Fish and Comparison to the Original Images

Once we have segmented all the fish from the dataset, we can visualize them and compare them with the original images. We can use Matplotlib’s subplots to create a grid of images, where each image is the original fish photo and its corresponding segmented image.

By overlaying the two images side by side, we can visually assess the accuracy of our segmentation technique.


In conclusion, we have explored the potential and limitations of a simple segmentation technique using color spaces and OpenCV. We first discussed the importance of color spaces in image analysis, introducing different color spaces available and their usefulness.

We then explored how to use OpenCV and Python packages to create a simple segmentation function. We discussed the importance of choosing a suitable color range and demonstrated how to select a range of colors using an online tool.

We then applied this technique to a dataset of Nemo’s relatives images, demonstrating that the technique can be generalized and applied to different types of clownfish. We visualized the segmented fish and compared them with their original images, showing the accuracy and reliability of our segmentation technique.

Overall, the simple segmentation technique can be a valuable tool in image analysis, particularly for tasks such as identifying and isolating objects in an image. However, the technique has its limitations and may not work well for all types of images.

It is crucial to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the technique and use it appropriately to achieve the desired results. In this article, we have explored the importance of color spaces and simple segmentation techniques in image analysis using Python and OpenCV.

We have discussed the RGB, HSV, and other color