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Top-Rated Databases for 2022: Boost Your Career with SQL Mastery

Databases are an integral part of our modern technology, and understanding different types of databases, along with their importance, is crucial for anyone who wants to work with data. SQL is a critical part of any career that involves data.

In this article, we will explore the top-rated databases for 2022 that can help you gain an edge in your career.

Importance of Understanding Different Databases

Databases are essential tools for organizations, small and large alike, as they store and handle large amounts of data. Understanding the different types of databases is crucial as each has different strengths and weaknesses that make them ideal for specific use cases.

A Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) is used when the data is distinct and is structured in a way that relates to other data. In contrast, a NoSQL database can handle unstructured data, making it ideal for big data and streaming data applications.

Use of Databases in Modern Technology

The importance of databases is evident in our daily life, especially for businesses. A database is used by online retailers to manage their product catalogs, including pricing and inventory.

Databases are used by banks and other financial institutions to store financial information and to perform accounting and financial analysis. Social media websites such as Facebook and Twitter use databases to store user data, including profile information, posts, and comments.

Importance of SQL in a Career Involving Data

SQL (Structured Query Language) is a powerful language used to manage relational databases. It is used to extract, manipulate, and analyze data from databases.

Understanding SQL is crucial for anyone interested in pursuing a career in the data, analytics, or database management industry. SQL is a requirement for many data-related job roles, including database administrators, data analysts, and data scientists.

Top-Rated Databases Across the Internet and Stack Overflow have surveyed databases and compiled the following top five databases based on their current popularity and job availability:

1) MySQL: The open-source MySQL database is one of the most widely used databases worldwide. It is a fast, secure, and reliable database that has been around for over two decades.

Its popularity is due to its scalability, ease of use, and support for multiple platforms. 2) PostgreSQL: Known for its performance, reliability, and features, PostgreSQL is an advanced and powerful open-source database management system.

It supports many advanced features such as full-text search, multi-version concurrency control, and point-in-time recovery. 3) Oracle: A popular proprietary database system, Oracle has been around for over four decades.

It is used by many large organizations due to its scalability and enterprise-level features, including backup and recovery solutions, high availability, and security features. 4) Microsoft SQL Server: An enterprise-level relational database management system from Microsoft, SQL Server, is used worldwide to store and manage large amounts of data.

It is known for its scalability, performance, and reliability. 5) MongoDB: A NoSQL database system that is known for its scalability and flexibility.

MongoDB enables the storage of unstructured data through its document-oriented architecture and is used by many organizations to store data such as social media feeds, mobile app data, and other high-volume, fast-changing data types.


Understanding different databases and their importance, along with SQL, is crucial for anyone who wants to work with data in their career. The top-rated databases for 2022, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, and MongoDB, are all powerful systems that offer scalable and reliable data management solutions.

Whether you are a small business owner, database administrator, data analyst, or data scientist, these databases can help you manage and analyze data more efficiently. MySQL: Overview and Robust Features

MySQL is an open-source RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) designed to store and manage data efficiently.

MySQL is a fundamental component of the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack used for developing web applications. MySQL was initially developed in 1994 by Michael Widenius and acquired by Oracle Corporation in 2010.

MySQL’s open-source aspect provides significant flexibility, as developers can modify the software to tailor it to their specific needs. The open-source aspect also has given rise to a vast community that continues to develop tools, plugins, and libraries to make the database more robust.

MySQL’s features include support for multiple platforms, seamless scalability, and easy integration with other software and tools. MySQL is also highly reliable and can perform complex transactions and queries efficiently.

Use by Major Companies

Today, MySQL is used by many significant companies worldwide, including Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, among others. Facebook’s data infrastructure relies heavily on MySQL, with over 800 MySQL servers used to manage user data.

YouTube relies on MySQL to manage user-generated data, video tags, and searched data. The open-source aspect of MySQL makes it affordable for these companies, enabling them to develop applications at a lower cost.

Limitations with Advanced Data Protection Features

Like any other technology, MySQL has its limitations with complex security requirements. MySQL’s security features, like encryption, are not as robust compared to other enterprise-level databases like Oracle or Microsoft SQL Server.

MySQL’s security features often require customization, extensions, and third-party tools to achieve advanced protection features. MySQL’s current version does not provide semi-structured data support, another shortfall compared to many other databases.

PostgreSQL: Overview and Advanced Features

PostgreSQL is an advanced open-source database management system that is highly scalable, fast, and powerful. PostgreSQL was initially developed in 1986 by the University of California, Berkeley database team.

PostgreSQL is renowned for its advanced features, including support for semi-structured data types and distributed SQL.

Comparing with MySQL

PostgreSQL is often compared to MySQL due to their similarities. Both databases are open source, have robust features, and support different platforms.

However, PostgreSQL has more advanced features than MySQL when it comes to data structure and reliability. PostgreSQL provides support for more flexible data types, including JSON, HStore, and arrays.

PostgreSQL also has a better reputation for its performance with a larger dataset. PostgreSQL tends to handle a larger number of concurrent tasks than MySQL, making it a more popular choice for many high-volume web applications.

Advanced Features for Semi-Structured Data and Distributed SQL

PostgreSQL’s advanced features make it ideal for handling semi-structured data. PostgreSQL supports many object-relational features that allow developers to create complex data types, including three-dimensional spatial data.

PostgreSQL also supports distributed SQL by allowing users to distribute queries across multiple hosts. This feature enables users to extract data faster from servers used in massive datasets.

Customization Options and Community Support

PostgreSQL offers more customization options than MySQL, such as triggers, stored procedures, and sophisticated indexing options. PostgreSQL can be customized at an advanced level, including query optimization, memory allocation, and partitioning tables across multiple servers.

PostgreSQL has a vast community with over 30 years of development experience, ensuring continued support, improvement, and customization.


In conclusion, both MySQL and PostgreSQL are popular open-source databases with their strengths and weaknesses. MySQL is a popular choice for small to medium databases that operate on a budget.

In contrast, PostgreSQL offers more advanced features, customizations, and optimization options, perfect for handling complex data types and high volumes of data. Choosing between MySQL and PostgreSQL depends on the specific needs of each application.

Oracle: Overview and Enterprise-Grade RDBMSs

Oracle is a popular RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) known for its scalability, performance, and enterprise-level features. Larry Ellison founded Oracle Corporation in 1977, and the company has since grown into one of the largest software companies globally.

Oracle is used by many significant organizations worldwide, including banks, telecoms, and retail companies.

Use for Enterprise-Grade RDBMSs

Oracle is ideal for enterprise-grade RDBMSs (Relational Database Management Systems) due to its advanced features, including supporting all data types from structured to semi-structured. Oracle’s advanced features include high-availability options, such as Real Application Clusters (RAC) and disaster recovery options such as Active Data Guard.

Database administrators can use these features to ensure high availability, reliability, and performance.

Advanced Features for Both Structured and Semi-Structured Data

Oracle has a vast range of advanced features for both structured and semi-structured data types, including the ability to store and analyze JSON and XML data. They easily support multitenancy, advanced compression, and integrated in-memory options for fast access to data.

Oracle is also easily integrated with other database management systems, such as SQL Server and DB2.

Cost and Lack of Open Source Availability

One of Oracle’s significant disadvantages is its cost. The licensing costs, and maintenance of the Oracle database are much higher than other databases.

Another notable weakness of Oracle is the lack of open-source availability. This limited access to the source code restricts how developers can customize the database and limits the adoption of Oracle in the open-source community.

Microsoft SQL Server: Overview and

Comparison with Azure

Microsoft SQL Server is a popular RDBMS used for managing and storing data in applications. SQL Server was initially released in 1989 and is available in various editions, including Enterprise, Standard, and Developer.

SQL Server is known for its scalability, easy-to-use interface, and integration with other Microsoft products and offerings.

Comparison with Azure

Microsoft SQL Server is also available as a cloud-based service called Azure SQL Database. Azure offers many advantages, such as built-in disaster recovery options, global availability, and auto-scaling, all made possible with cloud technology.

Cheaper Licensing Costs Compared to Oracle

Microsoft SQL Server’s licensing costs are cheaper than Oracle, making it a popular choice for small to medium-sized businesses. The developer edition of SQL Server is free and provides various features, including complete compatibility with the enterprise edition, enabling developers to develop, test and deploy applications efficiently.

Shift Towards Cloud-Based Offering

In recent years, Microsoft has been shifting more towards its cloud-based offering, and Azure SQL Database is a part of this shift. Microsoft’s cloud-based offering provides more flexibility, scalability and reduces operational costs.

Azure SQL Database services are also easy to integrate with other Microsoft services like Azure App Service, Azure Machine Learning, and Power BI.


Choosing between Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server depends on specific business needs. Both databases have distinct features and functions that cater to different applications.

Oracle is well suited for enterprise-level RDBMS’s where performance and reliability are crucial. However, Oracle has a high licensing cost and lacks open-source availability.

Microsoft SQL Server is cheaper and offers a wide range of features suitable for optimizing performance and scaling. Moreover, with Azure, businesses have more flexibility and scalability due to the shift towards cloud-based offerings.

MongoDB: Overview and Differences from Relational DBMS

MongoDB is a NoSQL database that provides an alternative to traditional RDBMSs (Relational Database Management Systems). MongoDB was released in 2009 by 10gen and is open source and document-oriented.

MongoDB stores data as BSON (Binary JSON) documents giving it flexibility for semi-structured data like JSON or XML.

Use for Semi-Structured Data

MongoDB is widely used for semi-structured data, such as sensor data, application logs, product catalogs, and social media feeds. MongoDB’s document store provides high scalability and availability, making it suitable for handling high volume and fast-changing data.

Cost of Some ACID Transaction Inconsistency

MongoDB’s flexible data structure comes at a cost. While offering faster performance and scalability, MongoDB comes with some ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) transaction inconsistency issues.

But MongoDB’s use of write ahead logs and checkpoints helps to mitigate these issues.

Examples of Companies Using MongoDB

Many significant companies worldwide use MongoDB, including Cisco, BOSCH, eBay, and The New York Times. Cisco uses MongoDB to store and analyze security logs and patterns to aid in security intelligence.

Bosch uses MongoDB to manage vehicle data. eBay uses MongoDB to handle product catalogs, user-generated content, and historical data from terabytes of data collected each day.

Learning SQL for Popular Databases

SQL is a must-have tool for anyone in the data management and analytics field. With the increasing demand for SQL proficiency, learning SQL has become more accessible than ever.

Learning SQL requires a customer-focused approach, understanding the user’s needs and interests.

Recommendation to Start with PostgreSQL for Beginners

For beginners in SQL, PostgreSQL is an excellent starting point. PostgreSQL offers extensive functionality, robust features, and a vast community support base.

PostgreSQL’s open-source license enables users to customize and modify the database to cater to specific needs. PostgreSQL also has an extensive library of books, courses, and tutorials to help users get started.

Learning Resources from is an online learning platform that provides users with in-depth knowledge about SQL and different databases. presents multiple tailored courses for PostgreSQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, and MySQL to cater to different interests and career goals.

Each course on provides an interactive and collaborative learning experience consisting of engaging tutorials, quizzes, and real-world projects. Moreover, the courses provide opportunities for data exploration and analysis, enabling users to become proficient in SQL quickly.

Practice Platform for Understanding Query Solutions’s practice platform allows users to test their skills against real-world problems. It presents users with problems to solve using SQL, with real-world datasets that simulate actual business scenarios.

The platform enables users to write queries using many database vendors, including PostgreSQL. Users can track their progress and compete with other users on leaderboards.

The practice platform provides instant feedback and hints to help users solve problems.


Learning SQL is critical for anyone interested in a career in data management and analytics. PostgreSQL is an excellent starting point for those new to SQL, and is an excellent resource for learning different SQL languages.

MongoDB, on the other hand, provides an alternative to RDBMSs, enabling users to store semi-structured data more efficiently. While understanding SQL and different databases’ features is important, a customer-focused approach is the most critical factor for successful data management and analytics.

In conclusion, understanding different database management systems and SQL is critical for anyone working with data. For those interested in a career in data management and analytics, learning SQL is essential, and PostgreSQL is an excellent starting point.

MongoDB is an excellent alternative to traditional relational databases, offering a document-oriented, flexible data store. It’s crucial to be customer-focused when managing data and recognize the importance of understanding the user’s needs.

Therefore, provides a great resource for learning SQL and different database technologies. Regardless of which database management system one chooses, understanding its limitations and benefits is crucial to optimize data storage and management.

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